Antioxidants represent a powerful tool for many human diseases and, in particular, molecular hydrogen has unique characteristics that make it a very promising therapeutic agent against osteoporosis. Zebrafish scales offer an innovative model in which new therapeutic approaches against secondary osteoporosis are tested. Scale bone loss obtained by prednisolone (PN) treatment is characterized by increased osteoclast activity and decreased osteoblast activity highlighted with bone enzymatic assays. We used this read-out system to test the therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), an innovative antioxidant approach. HRW prevented osteoclast activation and bone loss in PN-treated fish scales, as verified by both biochemical and histochemical tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase assays. On the other hand, HRW treatment did not prevent PN-dependent osteoblast suppression, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity. Moreover, HRW treatment did not facilitate the reparation of resorption lacunae induced in scales by PN. Our study highlighted a specific effect of HRW on adult osteoclast activity but not in osteoblasts, introducing an intriguing new antioxidant preventive approach against osteoporosis.
Since the anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen has been widely known, it was supposed that hydrogen could suppress tissue damage by inhibiting virus-related inflammatory reactions. However, hydrogen is slightly soluble in water, which leads to poor effect of oral hydrogen-rich water therapy. In this study, the nano-bubble hydrogen water (nano-HW) (about 0.7 ppm) was prepared and its therapeutic effect against viral infection was investigated by utilizing spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)-infected zebrafish as model. Three-month-old zebrafish were divided into nano-HW treatment-treated group and aquaculture water treated group (control group). The results revealed that the cumulative mortality rate of SVCV-infected zebrafish was reduced by 40% after treatment with nano-bubble hydrogen water, and qRT-PCR results showed that SVCV replication was significantly inhibited. Histopathological examination staining showed that SVCV infection caused tissue damage was greatly alleviated after treatment with nano-bubble hydrogen water. Futhermore, SVCV infection caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was significantly reduced upon nano-HW treatment. The level of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was remarkably reduced in the nano-HW-treated group in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrated for the first time that nano-HW could inhibit the inflammatory response caused by viral infection in zebrafish, which suggests that nano-HW can be applied to antiviral research，and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for virus-caused inflammation related disease.
Recently, molecular hydrogen has been reported to have a suppressive effect on inflammation in human and rodent models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on zebrafish challenged by A. hydrophila. We have found an increased survival rate of bacteria-challenged zebrafish subjected to the HRW immersion treatment. Furthermore, we have revealed that HRW was able to block multiplication of A. hydrophila in zebrafish. In addition, treatment of zebrafish infected by A. hydrophila with effective concentrations of HRW strongly affected the expression of genes mediating pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There were down-regulation of selected pro-inflammatory immune response genes (IL-1β, IL-6, and NF-κB), and up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine gene (IL-10) in the spleen, kidney, and liver. This study is the first one to investigate the effects of HRW on fish infected with bacteria, and might shed new light on hydrogen’s antimicrobial effects and further application in aquaculture fish species.
Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) has been reported to have important biological effects on bone tissue in several in vitro and in vivo models. Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryo is a good model to study osteogenesis because its transparency, size and rapid development. In zebrafish embryo, hydrogen rich water (HRW) do not affect vitality or growth rate up to 15%. In addition, 7% HRW treatment enhances zebrafish embryo osteogenesis increasing vertebral mineralization rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of hydrogen on anabolic bone functions in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.