Hydrogen Gas Treatment Improves Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Noncardiac Patients

Purpose: Postoperative delirium is a state of acute brain dysfunction characterized by fluctuating mental status that affects millions of patients each year. We used prophylactic inhalation of hydrogen gas in elderly patients undergoing elective surgery to compare their occurrence of postoperative delirium with that of controls. Methods: A total of 184 patients aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled and randomized into either a control group or a hydrogen inhalation group. The quality of sleep was assessed 1 day before and 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery at 8 A.M. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used as a screening tool for delirium and assessed the patients’ state of consciousness 1−7 days after surgery. Results: Postoperative delirium occurred in 17 (24%) of 70 patients without hydrogen inhalation and in 10 (12%) of 83 patients after hydrogen inhalation. The incidence of delirium was decreased in the hydrogen group. No significant differences were found between length of stay in hospital after surgery and sleep quality at 1, 3, and 7 days postoperatively between the two groups. The numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores were higher in the hydrogen group (4.08 ± 1.77) than the control group (3.54 ± 1.77) on day 1 (p < 0.05); however, the mean difference between the two groups was small (1 to 1.6). There were no significant differences on day 3 and 7. The postoperative C-reactive protein level was significantly lower in the hydrogen group than the control group. Conclusions: This study suggests that hydrogen inhalation can prevent postoperative delirium in elderly noncardiac patients by reducing the inflammatory response.

Rational Design of Platinum-Bismuth Sulfide Schottky Heterostructure for Sonocatalysis-Mediated Hydrogen Therapy

Conventional sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is unavoidably limited by the tumor microenvironment although many sonosensitizers have been developed to improve them to a certain extent. Given this, we propose a concept of sonocatalytic hydrogen evolution and define it as an oxygen-independent therapeutics. To demonstrate the feasibility of the concept, narrow-bandgap semiconductor bismuth sulfide (Bi2 S3 ) are selected as sonocatalysts and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles are grown in situ to optimize their catalytic performance. In this nanocatalytic system, Pt nanoparticles help to capture sono-excited electrons, whereas intratumoral overexpressed glutathione (GSH) as natural hole sacrificial agents can consume sono-excited holes, which greatly improves charge separation efficiency and promote the controllable and sustainable H2 generation. Even under hypoxic conditions, the Pt-Bi2 S3 nanoparticles can also produce sufficient H2 under US irradiation. Mechanistically, mitochondrial dysfunction caused by H2 and intratumoral redox homeostasis destruction by GSH depletion synergistically damage DNA to induce tumor cells apoptosis. At the same time, Pt nanoparticles and holes can also trigger the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into O2 to relieve tumor hypoxia, thus synergistic with GSH depletion to reverse tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. The proposed sonocatalysis mediated therapy will provide a new direction to realize facile and efficient cancer therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Acute pre-exercise hydrogen rich water intake does not improve running performance at maximal aerobic speed in trained track and field runners: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

Purpose: This study investigated the effects of acute, pre-exercise, hydrogen rich water (HRW) ingestion on running time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic speed in trained track and field runners. Methods: Twenty-four, male runners aged 17.5 ± 1.8 years, with body mass index = 21.0 ± 1.3 kg⋅m-2, and maximal oxygen uptake = 55.0 ± 4.6 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1 (mean ± standard deviation) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. All runners ingested 1260 ml of HRW which was divided into four doses and taken at 120 min (420 ml), 60 min (420 ml), 30 min (210 ml), and 10 min (210 ml) prior to exercise. The running protocol consisted of three phases: warm-up performed at 10 km⋅h-1 for 3 min, followed by a transition phase performed at an individually determined speed (10 km⋅h-1 + maximal aerobic speed)/2 for 1 min, and finally the third phase performed at individual maximal aerobic speed until exhaustion. Time to exhaustion, cardiorespiratory variables, and post-exercise blood lactate concentration were measured. Results: When running to exhaustion at maximal aerobic speed, compared with placebo, HRW had no significant effects on the following variables: time to exhaustion (217 ± 49 and 227 ± 53 s, p = 0.20), post-exercise blood lactate concentration (9.9 ± 2.2 and 10.1 ± 2.0 mmol⋅L-1, p = 0.42), maximal heart rate (186 ± 9 and 186 ± 9 beats⋅min-1, p = 0.80), and oxygen uptake (53.1 ± 4.5 and 52.2 ± 4.7 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1, p = 0.33). No variable assessed as a candidate moderator was significantly correlated with time to exhaustion (Spearman’s correlation coefficients ranged from -0.28 to 0.30, all p ≥ 0.16). Conclusions: Pre-exercise administration of 1260 ml of HRW showed no ergogenic effect on running performance to exhaustion at maximal aerobic speed in trained track and field runners.

Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Chronic Allodynia after Bone Fractures via Reducing Spinal CXCL1/CXCR2-Mediated Iron Accumulation in Mice

Purpose: Neuroinflammation often initiates iron overload in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Chemokine-driven neuroinflammation is required for central sensitization and chronic allodynia following fractures, but specific molecular modulations are elusive. This present study explored whether hydrogen-rich saline, as one potent anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical, could alleviate fracture-caused allodynia by suppressing chemokine CXCL1 expression and iron overload. Methods: A mouse model of tibial fracture with intramedullary pinning was employed for establishing chronic allodynia. Three applications of hydrogen-rich saline (1, 5 or 10 mL/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally on a daily basis from days 4 to 6 following fractures. Spinal CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 levels, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression and iron concentration were examined. Recombinant CXCL1, a selective CXCR2 antagonist and an iron chelator were used for verification of mechanisms. Results: Repetitive injections of hydrogen-rich saline (5 and 10 mL/kg but not 1 mL/kg) prevent fracture-caused mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Single exposure to hydrogen-rich saline (10 mL/kg) on day 14 after orthopedic surgeries controls the established persistent fracture allodynia. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich saline therapy reduces spinal CXCL1/CXCR2 over-expression and TfR1-mediated iron accumulation in fracture mice. Spinal CXCR2 antagonism impairs allodynia and iron overload following fracture surgery. Intrathecal delivery of recombinant CXCL1 induces acute allodynia and spinal iron overload, which is reversed by hydrogen-rich saline. Moreover, iron chelation alleviates exogenous CXCL1-induced acute pain behaviors. Conclusions: These findings identify that hydrogen-rich saline confers protection against fracture-caused chronic allodynia via spinal down-modulation of CXCL1-dependent TfR1-mediated iron accumulation in mice.

Pharmacokinetics of hydrogen administered intraperitoneally as hydrogen-rich saline and its effect on ischemic neuronal cell death in the brain in gerbils

Intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen (H2)-containing saline inhibited neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke in a number of animal models, but it is unknown whether H2 is absorbed from the abdominal cavity into the blood and reaches the brain. In this study, we investigated whether intraperitoneal administration of saline containing H2 inhibits neuronal cell death caused by cerebral ischemia and measured the concentration of H2 in the carotid artery and inferior vena cava (IVC). Gerbils were subjected to transient unilateral cerebral ischemia twice, and saline or H2-rich saline was administered intraperitoneally three or seven times every 12 hours. We evaluated the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex on day 3 and the number of viable neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex on day 7. In addition, a single dose of saline or H2-rich saline was administered intraperitoneally, and blood H2 levels in the carotid artery and IVC were measured. On day 3 of ischemia/reperfusion, the number of neurons undergoing apoptosis in the cortex was significantly lower in the H2-rich saline group than in the saline group, and on day 7, the number of viable neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was significantly higher in the H2-rich saline group. Intraperitoneal administration of H2-rich saline resulted in large increases in H2 concentration in the IVC ranging from 0.00183 mg/L (0.114%) to 0.00725 mg/L (0.453%). In contrast, carotid H2 concentrations remained in the range of 0.00008 mg/L (0.0049%) to 0.00023 (0.0146%). On average, H2 concentrations in carotid artery were 0.04 times lower than in IVC. These results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of H2-rich saline significantly suppresses neuronal cell death after cerebral ischemia, even though H2 hardly reaches the brain.

Effect of water diuresis with hydrogen saturation on the course of acute kidney damage during the separation of oxidation and phosphorylation

Molecular hydrogen has the ability to penetrate cells, easily reach mitochondria, overcome body barriers, penetrate areas of ischemia, edema and inflammation, improve energy supply by supplying additional electrons and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by neutralizing highly reactive hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite. In this experiment, we included 60 nonlinear male rats weighing 0.16-0.18 kg and investigated the effect of a negative redox potential solution -297.3±5.27 mV with a molecular hydrogen saturation of 1.2 ppm on the functional-biochemical processes of the kidneys in tissue hypoxia in moderately resistant rats during the separation of oxidation and phosphorylation with the introduction of 2,4-dinitrophenol at a dose of 3 mg/kg. All studies were performed on moderately stable rats. Experimental, functional, biochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, physicochemical, histoenzymochemical, and statistical research methods were used. Under conditions of renal hypoxia in the separation of oxidation and phosphorylation, the use of a solution of negative redox reabsorption of sodium ions in the distal nephron reduces the manifestations of tubular proteinuria, increases the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in the proximal nephron and reduces the redox potential of urine to negative values. Negative redox potential solution with molecular hydrogen saturation has a protective effect on the kidneys and reduces elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1-β, and interleukin-6 in blood plasma, and causes oxidative modification of proteins in the renal cortex for their hypoxia in the separation of oxidation and phosphorylation.

Injectable spontaneous hydrogen-releasing hydrogel for long-lasting alleviation of osteoarthritis

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) amplifies pro-inflammatory pathways and exacerbates immune responses, and is a key factor in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Therapeutic hydrogen gas (H2) with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, has a potential for OA alleviation, but the targeted delivery and sustained release of H2 are still challenging. Herein, we develop an injectable calcium boride nanosheets (CBN) loaded hydrogel platform (CBN@GelDA hydrogel) as a high-payload and sustainable H2 precursor for OA treatment. The CBN@GelDA hydrogel could maintain constant physiological pH conditions which further promotes more H2 release than the CBN alone and lasts more than one week. The biocompatibility of this hydrogel with macrophages and chondrocytes is effectively enhanced. The experiments show that the CBN@GelDA hydrogel holds the ROS scavenging ability, reducing the expression of related inflammatory cytokines, lessening M1 macrophages but stimulating M2 phenotype, and thereby decreasing chondrocyte apoptosis, which facilitates to breaking of the vicious circle of OA progression. Furthermore, a single-time injection of the CBN@GelDA hydrogel markedly reduces joint destruction in OA rats. From what has been discussed above, this injectable spontaneous H2-releasing hydrogel is promising for OA treatment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress and inflammation play the key role in the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis (OA). The system of a hydrogel loaded with H2 precursor calcium boride nanosheet (CBN), which is the first to use as an H2 precursor, integrates superior injectable and biocompatible of hydrogel and the selection of antioxidant properties of H2. This system can improve H2 release behavior and achieve a single injection into the articular cavity to alleviate the progression of OA in rats. This study of the combination of a convenient long-acting injectable hydrogel and a safe therapeutic gas is of great value for improving the quality of life of clinical patients.

Hydrogen gas and preservation of intestinal stem cells in mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion

Background: Patients with mesenteric ischemia frequently suffer from bowel necrosis even after revascularization. Hydrogen gas has showed promising effects for ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing reactive oxygen species in various animal and clinical studies. We examined intestinal tissue injury by ischemia and reperfusion under continuous initiation of 3% hydrogen gas. Aim: To clarify the treatment effects and target cells of hydrogen gas for mesenteric ischemia. Methods: Three rat groups underwent 60-min mesenteric artery occlusion (ischemia), 60-min reperfusion following 60-min occlusion (reperfusion), or ischemia-reperfusion with the same duration under continuous 3% hydrogen gas inhalation (hydrogen). The distal ileum was harvested. Immunofluorescence staining with caspase-3 and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled 5 (LGR5), a specific marker of intestinal stem cell, was conducted to evaluate the injury location and cell types protected by hydrogen. mRNA expressions of LGR5, olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), hairy and enhancer of split 1, Jagged 2, and Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1 were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Tissue oxidative stress was analyzed with immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Systemic oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma 8-OHdG. Results: Ischemia damaged the epithelial layer at the tip of the villi, whereas reperfusion induced extensive apoptosis of the cells at the crypt base, which were identified as intestinal stem cells with double immunofluorescence stain. Hydrogen mitigated such apoptosis at the crypt base, and the LGR5 expression of the tissues was higher in the hydrogen group than in the reperfusion group. OLFM4 was also relatively higher in the hydrogen group, whereas other measured RNAs were comparable between the groups. 8-OHdG concentration was high in the reperfusion group, which was reduced by hydrogen, particularly at the crypt base. Serum 8-OHdG concentrations were relatively higher in both reperfusion and hydrogen groups without significance. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that hydrogen gas inhalation preserves intestinal stem cells and mitigates oxidative stress caused by mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion.

Effects of Alkaline-Reduced Water on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Fatigue in Young Male Healthy Adults

Regular physical activity confers health benefits and improves the general quality of life. Recently, alkaline-reduced water (ARW) consumption has garnered increasing attention in the field of sports. ARW effectively inhibits the oxidative stress generated in cells during high-intensity exercises; however, whether it exerts similar effects during exhaustive exercises remains unknown. This study was designed as a randomized, controlled, crossover, double-blind clinical trial with a single intervention of ARW intake (pH 9.5, 10 mL/kg body weight) after intense exercise. The participants were divided into two groups, wherein they consumed either purified water (PW group) or ARW (ARW group). Blood samples were collected before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 min after drinking water. The serum levels of oxidative stress markers and fatigue markers were determined. The results showed that ROS (p < 0.01) and NO levels (p < 0.001) were significantly decreased after ARW intake, and the reduction was more pronounced than that in the PW group. Interestingly, the increase in GPx and MDA levels was mediated by ARW intake (both p < 0.05) after exercise. The levels of fatigue markers, such as lactate (p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.001), and phosphate (p < 0.001), were significantly reduced in both groups, with ARW intervention showing more decreased markers. The correlation analysis results showed that ARW may help maintain homeostatic conditions for ROS, antioxidant systems, and fatigue markers. These findings indicate that ARW consumption is effective in reducing oxidative stress and fatigue following exhaustive exercise and that ARW could be used as an antioxidant and anti-fatigue supplement after exhaustive physical exercise.

Effects of hydrogen-rich saline in neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in rat model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

Background: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is one of the most common types of sepsis-related organ dysfunction without overt central nervous system (CNS) infection. It is associated with higher mortality, low quality of life, and long-term neurological sequelae in suspected patients. At present there is no specific treatment for SAE rather than supportive therapy and judicious use of antibiotics, which are sometimes associated with adverse effects. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to play crucial role in regulating inflammatory responses, neuronal injury, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in adult models of SAE. Here we report the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline in juvenile SAE rat model and its possible underling mechanism(s). Materials and methods: Rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of 8 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally to induce sepsis and hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) administered 1 h following LPS induction at a dose of 5 ml/kg. Rats were divided into: sham, sham + HRS, LPS and LPS + HRS. At 48 h, rats were sacrificed and Nissl staining for neuronal injury, TUNEL assay for apoptotic cells detection, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA protocol for inflammatory cytokines determination, mitochondrial dysfunction parameters, electron microscopy and western blot analysis were studied to examine the effect of HRS in LPS-induced septic rats. Results: Rats treated with HRS improved neuronal injury, improvement in rats’ survival rate. ELISA analysis showed decreased TNF-α and IL-1β and increased IL-10 expression levels in the HRS-treated group. Apoptotic cells were decreased after HRS administration in septic rats. The numbers of GFAP and IBA-1positive cells were attenuated in the HRS-treated group when compared to the LPS group. Subsequently, GFAP and IBA-1 immunoreactivity were decreased after HRS treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential detected by JC-1 dye and ATP content were decreased in septic rats, which were improved after HRS treatment, while release of ROS was increased in the LPS group reverted by HRS treatment, ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Further analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed decreased number of mitochondria and synapses, and disrupted mitochondrial membrane ultrastructure in the LPS group, while HRS administration increased mitochondria and synapses number. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that HRS can improve survival rate, attenuate neuroinflammation, astrocyte and microglial activation, neuronal injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in juvenile SAE rat model, making it a potential therapeutic candidate in treating paediatric SAE. Keywords: Apoptosis; Astrocyte; Microglia; Mitochondrial dysfunction; Neuroinflammation; Neuronal injury; Paediatrics; Sepsis-associated encephalopathy.