Objective: To investigate the effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn. Methods: One hundred and sixty ICR mice were divided into sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups according to the random number table, with 40 mice in each group. Mice in pure burn group and burn+ hydrogen group were inflicted with 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back, while mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group were sham injured. Mice in hydrogen group and burn+ hydrogen group inhaled 2% hydrogen for 1 h at post injury hour (PIH) 1 and 6, respectively, while mice in sham injury group and pure burn group inhaled air for 1 h. At PIH 24, lung tissue of six mice in each group was harvested, and then pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining and the lung tissue injury pathological score was calculated. Inferior vena cava blood and lung tissue of other eight mice in each group were obtained, and then content of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and lung tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and lung tissue was detected by spectrophotometry. After arterial blood of other six mice in each group was collected for detection of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), the wet and dry weight of lung tissue were weighted to calculate lung wet to dry weight ratio. The survival rates of the other twenty mice in each group during post injury days 7 were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, LSD test and log-rank test. Results: (1) At PIH 24, lung tissue of mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group showed no abnormality. Mice in pure burn group were with pulmonary interstitial edema, serious rupture of alveolar capillary wall, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. Mice in burn+ hydrogen group were with mild pulmonary interstitial edema, alveolar capillary congestion accompanied by slight rupture and bleeding, and the number of infiltration of inflammatory cells was smaller than that in pure burn group. The lung tissue injury pathological scores of mice in sham injury group, hydrogen group, pure burn group, and burn+ hydrogen group were (0.7±0.5), (0.8±0.5), (6.1±1.0), and (2.8±0.8) points, respectively. The lung tissue injury pathological score of mice in pure burn group was significantly higher than that in sham injury group (P<0.001). The lung tissue injury pathological score of mice in burn+ hydrogen group was significantly lower than that in pure burn group (P<0.001). (2) At PIH 24, the content of HMGB1 and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue of mice in hydrogen group was close to that in sham injury group (with P values above 0.05). The content of HMGB1 and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue of mice in pure burn group was significantly higher than that in sham injury group (with P values below 0.001). The content of HMGB1 and IL-6 in serum and lung tissue of mice in burn+ hydrogen group was significantly lower than that in pure burn group (with P values below 0.001). (3) At PIH 24, the activity of SOD in serum and lung tissue of mice in hydrogen group was close to that in sham injury group (with P values above 0.05). The activity of SOD in serum and lung tissue of mice in pure burn group was significantly lower than that in sham injury group (with P values below 0.001). The activity of SOD in serum and lung tissue of mice in burn+ hydrogen group was significantly higher than that in pure burn group (with P values below 0.001). (4) At PIH 24, there was no statistically significant difference in PaO(2) among the mice in four groups (F=0.04, P>0.05). (5) At PIH 24, the ratios of lung wet to dry weight of mice in sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups were 3.52±0.22, 3.61±0.24, 7.24±0.32, and 5.21±0.41, respectively. The ratio of lung wet to dry weight of mice in pure burn group was significantly higher than that in sham injury group (P<0.001). The ratio of lung wet to dry weight of mice in burn+ hydrogen group was significantly lower than that in pure burn group (P<0.001). (6) The survival rates of mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group during post injury days 7 were 100%. Compared with those in sham injury group, survival rates of mice in pure burn group from post injury days 3 to 7 were significantly decreased (with P values below 0.05). Compared with those in pure burn group, survival rates of mice in burn+ hydrogen group from post injury days 5 to 7 were significantly increased (with P values below 0.05). Conclusions: Hydrogen can significantly alleviate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and improve the pathological lesions of lung tissue of mice with severe burn. It has the effects of reducing inflammatory reaction and inhibiting oxidative stress, further showing the protective effect on the lung of burn mice.
Particulate matters (PM) are one of the major body burdens leading to diseases. We investigated the capacities of a hydrogen-enriched water (HW) eliminating carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and carbon microparticles (CMP) from the lungs and blood, respectively. In CNP-elimination test, rats were orally administered with purified water (PW) or HW (10 or 30 mL/kg/day) for 10 weeks. At the time point of 4 weeks, the rats were challenged with intratracheal instillation of CNP (4 mg). CNP accumulated in the airways and alveoli, and induced inflammatory lesions. Such pneumoconiosis was markedly improved by feeding HW, while PW was ineffective. CNP-induced pneumoconiosis caused systemic hematological alterations, decreasing major inflammatory cells, but markedly increasing eosinophils, indicative of an allergic reaction, which were attenuated by treatment with HW. Such PM-eliminating and anti-allergic effects of HW reduced body burden as confirmed from the facilitated recovery of body and lung weights. In CMP-clearance test, mice were orally administered with PW or HW for 7 days, and intravenously injected with CMP (300 mg/kg). CMP was rapidly eliminated from the blood in HW-fed mice. Indeed, the phagocytic indices increased to 3.5 and 6.7 folds at 10 and 30 mL/kg of HW, in comparison with a negligible effect of PW. As a mechanism study, only HW significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro Fenton reaction-mediated ·OH-generating system. Collectively, the results indicate that HW not only effectively eliminated PM from the lungs and blood by enhancing phagocytic activity, but also attenuated the lung injuries by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
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A previous study from our group has demonstrated that hydrogen administration can attenuate cardiovascular hypertrophy in vivo by targeting reactive oxygen species‑dependent mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of hydrogen on cardiomyocyte autophagy during β‑adrenoceptor activation in vivo and in vitro. We prepared hydrogen‑rich medium, and the concentration of hydrogen was measured by using the MB‑Pt reagent method. For the in vitro study, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with isoproterenol (ISO; 10 µM) for 5, 15 and 30 min, and then the protein expression levels of the autophagy marker microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β II (LC3B II) were examined by western blotting. The effect of hydrogen‑rich medium was then tested by pretreating the H9c2 cardiomyocytes with hydrogen‑rich medium for 30 min, then stimulating with ISO, and examining the protein expression levels of the autophagy marker LC3B II. For the in vivo study, mice received hydrogen (1 ml/100 g/day, by intraperitoneal injection) for 7 days prior to ISO administration (0.5 mg/100 g/day, by subcutaneous injection), and subsequently received hydrogen with or without ISO for another 7 days. Hypertrophic responses were examined by heart weight (HW) and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) measurements. The protein expression of autophagy markers Beclin1, autophagy‑related protein 7 (Atg7) and LC3B II were examined. The results demonstrated that excessive autophagy occurred following 5 min of ISO stimulation in vitro. This enhanced autophagy was blocked by pretreatment with hydrogen‑rich medium. Furthermore, hydrogen improved the deteriorated hypertrophic responses and inhibited the enhanced autophagic activity mediated by ISO administration in vivo, as indicated by decreasing HW and HW/BW, and suppressing the protein expression levels of Beclin1, Atg7 and LC3B II. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that hydrogen inhibited ISO‑induced excessive autophagy in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy models in vitro and in vivo.
Background: Medical gas hydrogen (H2) has a special role in airway inflammation; however, the effect of H2 on allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. This study explored the possible roles of H2 on the pathogenesis of AR and observed the influences of H2 on cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Methods: An AR guinea pig model was established by nasal ovalbumin sensitisation. Eighteen guinea pigs were divided into three groups, namely, saline control, AR-sensitised, and hydrogen-rich saline (HRS)-treated groups, with each group having six guinea pigs. The frequencies of sneezing and scratching were recorded. The IgE level and cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) levels in the serum were measured. The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We also observed the infiltration of cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) in nasal mucosa by immunofluorescence. Results: The frequencies of sneezing and scratching, as well as the levels of IgE, IL-4, and IL-13, in the serum were higher in the AR group than in the control group (p<0.01), whereas all these parameters were decreased significantly after HRS treatment (p<0.05). The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also lower in guinea pigs treated with HRS than those in the AR group (p<0.05). Conclusions: HRS could affect anti-inflammation in AR and decreased the expression of IL-4 and IL-13.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen on the therapy of onion poisoned dogs. A total of 16 adult beagle dogs were divided into two groups (control and hydrogen) and all were fed dehydrated onion powder at the dose of 10 g/kg for three days. The dogs of the experimental group were given subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mL/kg of hydrogen for 12 days after making the poisoned model successful. Blood samples were collected before feeding onions, one day before injecting hydrogen, and 2 h after the injection of hydrogen on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12. Control dogs were not treated with hydrogen. The levels of leukocyte production, anaemia, red blood cell degeneration which was reflected by the values of Heinz body count, haemolytic ratio, and oxidative products in hydrogen treated group were lower than in control dogs on some days. The capacity of medullary haematopoiesis that was based on reticulocyte counts, and the antioxidation in hydrogen group were higher compared with control group. However, the differences in renal function were not obvious in both groups. Accordingly, it was concluded that subcutaneous injection of hydrogen could alleviate the symptoms in onion poisoned dogs.
We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW) could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI). The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical (∙OH) levels in the c-kit+ cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs) increased and apoptotic c-kit+ cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of γ-H2AX and percentage of 8-oxoguanine positive cells significantly decreased in HW-treated c-kit+ cells, indicating that HW can alleviate TBI-induced DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage in c-kit+ cells. Finally, the cell cycle (P21), cell apoptosis (BCL-XL and BAK), and oxidative stress (NRF2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD, and GPX1) proteins were significantly altered by HW in irradiated mouse c-kit+ cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that HW protects against TBI-induced HSC injury.
Aims/introduction: In previous studies H2 administration has clearly shown effectiveness in inhibiting diabetes. Here, we evaluated whether subcutaneous injection of H2 shows enhanced efficacy against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced in mice by a high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. Material and methods: H2 was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 1ml/mouse/week for four weeks. T2DM associated parameters were then evaluated to determine the effectiveness of subcutaneous H2 administration. Results: The body weight of H2 -treated mice did not change over the course of the experiment. Compared to the untreated control animals, glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels in serum were significantly lower in treated mice, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in the serum was significantly higher. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were both improved in H2 -treated mice. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) analysis showed significant reductions in urine volume, urinary total protein and β2 microglobulin, kidney/body weight ratio and kidney fibrosis associated with subcutaneous injection of H2 . Conclusions: Subcutaneous injection of H2 significantly improves T2DM and DN related outcomes in a mouse model, supporting further consideration of subcutaneous injection as a novel and effective route of clinical H2 administration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Generation of free radicals through incomplete reduction of oxygen during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is well described. On the other hand, molecular hydrogen (H2) reduces oxidative stress due to its ability to react with strong oxidants and easily penetrate cells by diffusion, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions. This study was designed to explore cardioprotective potential of hypoxic postconditioning (HpostC) against I/R (30 min global I – 120 min R) in isolated rat hearts using oxygen-free Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB). Furthermore, the possibility to potentiate the effect of HpostC by H2 using oxygen-free KHB saturated with H2 (H2 + HpostC) was tested. HPostC was induced by 4 cycles of 1-minute perfusion with oxygen-free KHB intercepted by 1-minute perfusion with normal KHB, at the onset of reperfusion. H2 + HPostC was applied in a similar manner using H2-enriched oxygen-free KHB. Cardioprotective effects were evaluated on the basis of infarct size (IS, in % of area at risk, AR) reduction, post-I/R recovery of heart function, and occurrence of reperfusion arrhythmias. HPostC significantly reduced IS/AR compared with non-conditioned controls. H2 present in KHB during HPostC further decreased IS/AR compared with the effect of HPostC, attenuated severe arrhythmias, and significantly restored heart function (vs. controls). Cardioprotection by HpostC can be augmented by molecular hydrogen infusion.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of liver diseases, between steatosis and non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which are closely associated with diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress is a key factor in the development of NAFLD. Molecular hydrogen (H2) may ameliorate oxidative stress injuries by selectively neutralizing peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. The present study evaluated the effects of H2 on NAFLD in rats and concluded that H2‑rich saline had significant therapeutic effects on NAFLD induced by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. H2‑rich saline improved fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and lowered the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin‑1 beta, 3‑nitrotyrosine and 8‑hydroxy‑2’‑deoxyguanosine in the liver. In addition, the present study revealed that H2‑rich saline could significantly increase peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ expression in hepatocytes. In conclusion, H2‑rich saline may significantly improve NAFLD, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and activating hepatic PPARα and PPARγ expression.