Abstract B95: Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury In Mice

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Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

Hydrogen (H(2)) reportedly produces an antioxidative effect by quenching cytotoxic oxygen radicals. We studied the biological effects of water with dissolved H(2) on ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dahl salt-sensitive rats (7 weeks old) were allowed ad libitum drinking of filtered water (FW: dissolved H(2), 0.00 ± 0.00 mg/L) or water with dissolved H(2) produced by electrolysis (EW: dissolved H(2), 0.35 ± 0.03 mg/L) for up to 6 weeks on a 0.5% salt diet. The rats then underwent ischemic reperfusion (I/R) of one kidney and were killed a week later for investigation of the contralateral kidney and the heart. In the rats given FW, unilateral kidney I/R induced significant increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, methylglyoxal and blood urea nitrogen. Histologically, significant increases were found in glomerular adhesion, cardiac fibrosis, number of ED-1 (CD68)-positive cells and nitrotyrosine staining in the contralateral kidney and the heart. In rats given EW, those findings were significantly ameliorated and there were significant histological differences between rats given FW and those given EW. Consumption of EW by ad libitum drinking has the potential to ameliorate ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in CKD model rats. This indicates a novel strategy of applying H(2) produced by water electrolysis technology for the prevention of CKD cardio-renal syndrome.

Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity

Exposure to high oxygen concentrations leads to acute lung injury, including lung tissue and alveolar edema formation, congestion, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, as well as endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis or necrosis. Several studies have reported that molecular hydrogen is an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion into tissues and cells. Moreover, consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water) prevents stress-induced cognitive decline in mice and superoxide formation in mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on pulmonary injury-induced exposure to >98% oxygen at 2.5 ATA for five hours. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, saline group and saturated hydrogen saline group. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to examine histological changes. The lung wet to dry (W/D) weight ratio was calculated. The concentration of protein and total cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and BALF were measured by spectrophotometer. The light microscope findings showed that saturated hydrogen saline reduced the impairment when compared with the saline group: Saturated hydrogen saline decreased lung edema, reduced LDH activity in BALF and serum, and decreased total cells and protein concentration in BALF. These results demonstrated that saturated hydrogen saline alleviated hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury, which was partly responsible for the inhibition of oxidative damage.

Suppressive effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraben-induced DNA damage in human dermal fibroblast cells

Parabens have been widely used as preservatives in cosmetics due to the presumed low toxicity and long history of safe use. However, recent studies have shown the potent toxicity of parabens. In order to know if electrolyzed reduced water could suppress the oxidative DNA damage of HDF cell by methylparaben, one of the frequently used parabens, we performed comet assay in this study. As a result, interestingly, electrolyzed reduced water could suppress methylparaben-induced oxidative DNA damage in HDF cells.

Extension of the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by the use of electrolyzed reduced water

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has attracted much attention because of its therapeutic effects. In the present study, a new culture medium, which we designated Water medium, was developed to elucidate the effects of ERW on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Wild-type C. elegans had a significantly shorter lifespan in Water medium than in conventional S medium. However, worms cultured in ERW-Water medium exhibited a significantly extended lifespan (from 11% to 41%) compared with worms cultured in ultrapure water-Water medium. There was no difference between the lifespans of worms cultured in ERW-S medium and ultrapure water-S medium. Nematodes cultured in ultrapure water-Water medium showed significantly higher levels of reactive oxygen species than those cultured in ultrapure water-S medium. Moreover, ERW-Water medium significantly reduced the ROS accumulation induced in the worms by paraquat, suggesting that ERW-Water medium extends the longevity of nematodes at least partly by scavenging ROS.

Electrolyzed Reduced Water Prolongs Caenorhabditis elegans’ Lifespan

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has been reported to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improve oxidative stress-related diseases. A new culture method using water medium for Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans) was developed in order to elucidate the effects of ERW on the lifespan of nematode. ERW significantly extended the lifespan of C. elegans and alleviated the ROS Level in nematode in water medium, but not in conventional S-medium. These results suggested that the nematode lifespan was elongated at least in part by ROS-scavenging action of ERW.

Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release

Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis is still considered to be the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Recently, it has been suggested that molecular hydrogen (H2) exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity by selectively reducing hydroxyl radicals (*OH, the most cytotoxic reactive oxygen species) and effectively protects against organ damage induced by I/R. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2 treatment had a beneficial effect on sepsis. In the present study, we found that H2 inhalation starting at 1 and 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice with moderate or severe CLP in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, moderate or severe CLP mice showed significant multiple organ damage characterized by the increases of lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, serum biochemical parameters, and organ histopathologic scores at 24 h after CLP operation, which was significantly attenuated by 2% H2 treatment. In addition, we found that the beneficial effects of H2 treatment on sepsis and sepsis-associated organ damage were associated with the decreased levels of oxidative product, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced levels of high-mobility group box 1 in serum and tissue. Thus, H2 inhalation may be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with sepsis.

Hydrogen Gas Improves Survival Rate and Organ Damage in Zymosan-Induced Generalized Inflammation Model

Sepsis/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Recently, it has been suggested that hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity by selectively reducing hydroxyl radical (•OH, the most cytotoxic reactive oxygen species). We have found that H2 inhalation significantly improved the survival rate and organ damage of septic mice with moderate or severe cecal ligation and puncture. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2% H2 treatment on survival rate and organ damage in zymosan (ZY)-induced generalized inflammation model. Here, we found that 2% H2 inhalation for 60 min starting at 1 and 6 h after ZY injection, respectively, significantly improved the 14-day survival rate of ZY-challenged mice from 10% to 70%. Furthermore, ZY-challenged mice showed significant multiple organ damage characterized by the increase in serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine), as well as lung, liver, and kidney histopathological scores at 24 h after ZY injection, which was significantly attenuated by 2% H2 treatment. In addition, we found that the beneficial effects of H2 treatment on ZY-induced organ damage were associated with the decreased levels of oxidative product, increased activities of antioxidant enzyme, and reduced levels of early and late proinflammatory cytokines in serum and tissues. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that H2 treatment protects against multiple organ damages in ZY-induced generalized inflammation model, suggesting the potential use of H2 as a therapeutic agent in the therapy of conditions associated with inflammation-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

Effects of hydrogen gas inhalation on serum high mobility group box 1 levels in severe septic mice

To investigate the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on survival rate and serum high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels in severe septic mice. Severe sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation in mice.A total of 248 mice were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (sham), sham operation with hydrogen gas inhalation group (sham+H2), severe CLP group (severe CLP) and severe CLP with hydrogen gas inhalation group (severe CLP+H2). Hydrogen gas inhalation was given for 1 h at 1st and 6th h after CLP or sham operation, respectively. The survival rates and serum HMGB1 levels of all groups at different time points were measured. The 7-d survival rates of severe CLP mice was 0 % (Compared with Sham group, P <0.05), and the serum HMBG1 levels from h2 to h32 after CLP operation were significantly increased in severe CLP mice (Compared with Sham group, P <0.05). Hydrogen gas treatment increased the 7-d survival rate of severe CLP mice to 60 % (Compared with severe sepsis group, P <0.05) and significantly reduced the serum HMGB1 levels at different time points (Compared with severe sepsis group, P <0.05). Hydrogen gas inhalation can decrease the serum HMGB1 levels and increase the survival rate of rats with severe sepsis.

Hydrogen-related enhancement of in vivo antioxidant ability in the brain of rats fed coral calcium hydride

This study explored the effect of coral calcium hydride (CCH) on rat intrahippocampal antioxidant ability by measuring the PCAM nitroxide radical decay ratio when CCH was (a) co-perfused into the hippocampus and (b) fed orally to the rats for 4 weeks under a freely moving state. Estimation of the in vivo antioxidant effect was obtained by administration of the blood-brain barrier-permeable PCAM nitroxide radical and the measured PCAM radical decay ratio then correlated to the amount of antioxidant in the brain using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy combined with microdialysis. The half-life periods of PCAM in rats treated with CCH in both the co-perfusion and orally fed groups were significantly shorter compared to the control group. These results clarify the mechanism that CCH may exert antioxidant activity by significantly enhancing the basal endogenous antioxidant ability in the hippocampus through a synergistic effect with α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid.