Breath hydrogen produced by ingestion of commercial hydrogen water and milk

Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults. Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured. Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10-15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decreased to the baseline level, whereas ingestion of the same amount of distilled water did not change breath hydrogen (p < 0.001). Ingestion of hydrogen water increased both hydrogen peaks and the area under the curve (AUC) of breath hydrogen in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of milk showed a delayed and sustained increase of breath hydrogen in subjects with milk intolerance for up to 540 min. Ingestion of hydrogen water produced breath hydrogen at AUC levels of 2 to 9 ppm hour, whereas milk increased breath hydrogen to AUC levels of 164 ppm hour for 540 min after drinking. Conclusion: Hydrogen water caused a rapid increase in breath hydrogen in a dose-dependent manner; however, the rise in breath hydrogen was not sustained compared with milk.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

Hydrogen gas was reported to reduce reactive oxygen species and alleviate cerebral, myocardial and hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. This paper studied the effect of hydrogen-rich saline, which was easier for clinical application, on the intestinal I/R injury. Model of intestinal I/R injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Physiological saline, hydrogen-rich saline or nitrogen-rich saline (5 ml/kg) was administered via intravenous infusion at 10 min before reperfusion, respectively. The intestine damage was detected microscopically and was assessed by Chiu score system after I/R injury. In addition, serum DAO activity, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 levels, tissue MDA, protein carbonyl and MPO activity were all increased significantly by I/R injury. Hydrogen-rich saline reduced these markers and relieved morphological intestinal injury, while no significant reduction was observed in the nitrogen-rich saline-treated animals. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline protected the small intestine against I/R injury, possibly by reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione

Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

Protective effect of hydrogen (H(2)) gas on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been demonstrated previously. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich saline (saline saturated with molecular hydrogen), which is easy to use, induces cardioprotection against ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (24 h) injury in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and 24-h reperfusion. Intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline before reperfusion significantly decreased plasma and myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, decreased cardiac cell apoptosis, and myocardial 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in area at risk zones (AAR), suppressed the activity of caspase-3, and reduced infarct size. The heart function parameters including left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +(dP/dt)(max) and -(dP/dt)(max) were also significantly improved 24 h after reperfusion. It is concluded that hydrogen-rich saline is a novel, simple, safe, and effective method to attenuate myocardial I/R injury.

Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen-dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells

Hydrogen-dissolved water (HD-water) or platinum nanocolloid (Pt-nc) has been individually expected as a new therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-related diseases, whereas little is known about their combined effects on cancer, which were elucidated in the present study. HD-water was prepared by microporous gas bubbling, and supplemented with Pt-nc consisting of 0.003-1 ppm Pt and PVP polymers. Antioxidant activities were examined by 1, 1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radicalscavenging assay. Cytotoxic activities were examined by culturing of tumor and normal cell lines, respectively. HD-water accelerated the Pt-nc-based DPPH-radical scavenging. Pt-nc-supplemented HD-water inhibited either colony formation efficiencies or colony sizes of human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4, in contrast to no effects of HD-water alone, Pt-nc alone or Pt-absent PVP, but not appreciably inhibit normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK. Pt-nc-supplemented HD-water also suppressed cell population growth of HSC-4 cells of near-confluence (at higher cell densities) in view of decreases in either cell numbers or mitochondrial function, although less markedly than colony formation starting from a sparse-cell state (at lower cell densities). Dissolved hydrogen, oxygen concentration or oxido-reduced potentials of HD-water was decreased, rather decreased or increased by Pt-nc addition, respectively. Anti-cancer activity of Pt-nc-supplemented HD-water was shown by its preferential cell-growth inhibition to human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 over normal human tongue cells DOK, and might be partly attributed to HD-water-caused enhancement of Pt-nc-relevant antioxidant ability. Pt-nc-supplemented HD-water is expected as a novel agent against human tongue cancers due to its cancer progression-repressive abilities.

Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats

Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

Biological Effects of Electrolyzed Water in Hemodialysis

Background: Chronic inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients indicates a poor prognosis. However, therapeutic approaches are limited. Hydrogen gas (H(2)) ameliorates oxidative and inflammatory injuries to organs in animal models. We developed an HD system using a dialysis solution with high levels of dissolved H(2) and examined the clinical effects. Methods: Dialysis solution with H(2) (average of 48 ppb) was produced by mixing dialysate concentrates and reverse osmosis water containing dissolved H(2) generated by a water electrolysis technique. Subjects comprised 21 stable patients on standard HD who were switched to the test HD for 6 months at three sessions a week. Results: During the study period, no adverse clinical signs or symptoms were observed. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after dialysis was observed during the study, and a significant number of patients achieved SBP <140 mmHg after HD (baseline, 21%; 6 months, 62%; P < 0.05). Changes in dialysis parameters were minimal, while significant decreases in levels of plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P < 0.01) and myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05) were identified. Conclusions: Adding H(2) to haemodialysis solutions ameliorated inflammatory reactions and improved BP control. This system could offer a novel therapeutic option for control of uraemia.

Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug in the treatment of a wide range of tumors; however, its application is limited by nephrotoxicity, which is affected by oxidative stress. We have reported that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as an efficient antioxidant (Ohsawa et al. in Nat Med 13:688-694, 2007). Here we show that hydrogen efficiently mitigates the side effects of cisplatin by reducing oxidative stress. Mice were administered cisplatin followed by inhaling hydrogen gas (1% H(2) in air). Furthermore, instead of inhaling hydrogen gas, we examined whether drinking water containing hydrogen (hydrogen water; 0.8 mM H(2) in water) is applicable by examining oxidative stress, mortality, and body-weight loss. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by morphological changes, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Inhalation of hydrogen gas improved mortality and body-weight loss caused by cisplatin, and alleviated nephrotoxicity. Hydrogen was detected in blood when hydrogen water was placed in the stomach of a rat. Consuming hydrogen water ad libitum also reduced oxidative stress, mortality, and body-weight loss induced by cisplatin in mice. Hydrogen water improved metamorphosis accompanying decreased apoptosis in the kidney, and nephrotoxicity as assessed by serum creatinine and BUN levels. Despite its protective effects against cisplatin-induced toxicity, hydrogen did not impair anti-tumor activity of cisplatin against cancer cell lines in vitro and tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Hydrogen has potential for improving the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy by efficiently mitigating the side effects of cisplatin.

Hydrogen gas is ineffective in moderate and severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat models

Hydrogen gas (H(2)) has been shown to ameliorate brain injury in experimental adult rat focal ischemia and in a mild neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI, 90 min hypoxia) rat model. In this study we tested H(2) in moderate (120 min hypoxia) and severe (150 min hypoxia) neonatal HI rat models. We hypothesized that H(2) would improve outcomes after neonatal HI by scavenging free radicals. Two hundred (200) unsexed Sprague-Dawley rats at day 10 of life (p10) underwent neonatal HI with the Rice-Vannucci model. Multiple treatment protocols were studied, including pre-ischemic treatment, intra-ischemic treatment, and post-ischemic treatment (Sham n=32, HI n=82, HI+H(2)n=86). We also tested H(2) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats (MCAO n=9, MCAO+H(2)n=7) for comparison. Analysis at 24 h included infarction volume, measurement of brain concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (an end-product of lipid peroxidation), daily weight, Nissl histology, and mortality. In moderate and severe neonatal HI models, hydrogen gas therapy (2.9% concentration H(2)) was not associated with decreased volume of infarction or decreased concentration of MDA. H(2) gas pretreatment (2.9%) was associated with increased infarction volume in neonatal HI. In MCAO in adult rats, H(2) gas therapy demonstrated a trend of beneficial effect. Exposure of H(2) gas to non-ischemic neonates resulted in a significant increase in brain concentration of MDA. We conclude that 2.9% H(2) gas therapy does not ameliorate moderate to severe ischemic damage in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.