Studies on the Properties and Real Existence of Aqueous Solution Systems that are Assumed to Have Antioxidant Activities by the Action of “Active Hydrogen”

We evaluated the properties and real existence of an electrolyzed-reduced water, which we prepared, and three commercially purchased water goods, that are advertised to have antioxidant activities by the action of ‘active hydrogen,’ on the basis of the results of examinations for inhibitory effects on the oxidative reactions of biomolecules, quantitative analyses of the minerals, and the ESR spectral data in measurement of the scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species. The results suggested that all of the examined aqueous solution systems undoubtedly have antioxidant activities in vitro and that such effects are derived from ordinary molecular hydrogen (hydrogen gas) and/or (a) reductive vanadium ion(s). ‘Active hydrogen’ seems to be absent as an effective component of the antioxidant activities of these aqueous solution systems.

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Electrolyzed Oxidized Water in Treating Mild to Moderate Acne

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and the tolerability of the Charme™ system, a hand-held device that electrolyzes a water-based sodium chloride solution and delivers electrolyzed oxidized water (EOW) to the skin, in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. A total of 31 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled in this 8-week, open-label, split-face pilot study. Acne lesion counts and physician global assessments were taken at each visit, as well as patient satisfaction and global assessments and high-resolution digital photographs. Statistical analysis of the results for treatment versus baseline scores was performed using a Hotelling T test and repeated – measures analysis of variance. Values of .04 or less were considered statistically significant. A total of 25 patients (mean age, 24.7 years, ranging from 15 to 47.years) completed the study. The mean reduction in total acne lesion counts from baseline to the end of treatment was 40.9 for the EOW – treated side (right side) and 18 for the untreated side (Heft side) (P=.04). Investigators observed a significant mean reduction in inflammatory lesions, both papules and pustules (P<.01), as well as in the number of individual papules (75.7% vs 19.4%) and pustules (42% vs 7.38%) on the treated side versus the untreated side (P=.02). The mean reduction of the noninflammatory lesions, however, was not significant (P=.336). Physician global assessment indicated that 100% of the patients showed clinical improvement of 25% or more, while 50% of the patients onserved a moderate improvement of 50% or more at the end of the treatment period. Interestingly, 75% of the patients preferred the EOW delivery system to other conventional treatment modalities. Only 5 patients had transient, cutaneous adverse effects, such as pruritus, erythema, burning/stinging, and/or peeling, that ceased by week 2. Patient satisfaction with the EOS system was rated high, with 80% of patients in the study assessing the EOW device as good or excellent, while 16% rated the device as fair. Only 4% of the patients were dissatisfied with the device. The pilot study demonstrated that the EOW system is an effective and well-tolerated method of treatment for patients with acne. The device appeared to be effective primarily on inflammatory acne lesions. This is most likely attributed to the antimicrobial properties of the EOW that reduce the Propionibacterium acnes populations.

The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis

We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.