Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats

Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

Anti-Oxidative Water Improves Diabetes

Electrolyzed reduced water and natural waters such as Hita Tenryosui water in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tracote water in Mexico, which are known to improve various diseases, were all and- oxidative waters which could scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species. The and-oxidative waters stimulated not only the glucose uptake of rat myotube L6 cells, but also the secretion of insulin from a pancreatic beta cell line HIT-T15. The anti-oxidative waters improved the damage in the sugar tolerance test of type 2 diabetes model mice (db/db mice). A clinical investigation demonstrated that Nordenau water could significantly improve the diabetes mellitus.

Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats

We previously reported that body weight on day 14 after birth in male offspring of rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) was significantly heavier than that in offspring of rats given tap water (TPW), but no significant difference was noted in milk yield and in suckled milk volume between the two groups. Additionally, the offspring in the AKW group and TPW group were given AKW and TPW, respectively, at weaning, and unexpectedly, the necrotic foci in the cardiac muscle were observed at the 15-week-old age in the AKW group, but not in the TPW group. The present study was designed to clarify the factors which are involved in that unusual increase of body weight and occurrence of cardiac necrosis. Eight dams in each group were given AKW or TPW (control) from day 0 of gestation to day 14 of lactation. The milk samples were collected on day 14 of lactation and analyzed for concentrations of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chloride (Cl). The AKW and TPW were also analyzed. Ca, Na and K levels in milk were significantly higher in the AKW group compared to the TPW group. No significant difference was noted in the Mg and Cl levels between the two groups. These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW.

Suppressive Effect of Electrolyzed-Reduced Water on the Growth of Cancer Cells and Microorganisms

We investigated the suppressive effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on the growth of not only various human cancer cells but also microorganisms such as gram-negative Escherichia coli. ERW suppressed the growth of cancer cells, especially in soft-agar culture. The suppressive effect of ERW on the growth of cancer cells depended upon cell types and malignancy of cancer cells and the production methods of ERW. We assumed that scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ERW resulted in impairing the tumor phenotypes such as rapid proliferation and anchorage-independent growth without affecting serious damage to normal cells. We also found that ERW exhibited weak microbicidal effect, especially in low cell densities of microorganisms. It may contribute to prevent the rot of food or improve the intestinal microflora to prevent abnormal fermentation.

Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions

Antioxidant vitamins and enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase are considered to function as scavengers against reactive oxygen species and to provide protection against reactive oxygen species, including free radicals. Although antioxidants such as L-ascorbic acid, d-catechin and quercetin dehydrate show superoxide dismutation activity, using reduced water produced in the cathode side by electrolysis as a solvent instead of 2 mM NaC1 solution of the same pH level as the reduced water increased the superoxide dismutation activity of these antioxidants. Moreover, neither the reduced water nor its electrolyte solution showed any superoxide dismutation activity by itself. On the other hand, the reduced water was able to decrease hydrogen peroxide levels. It has been found that the behaviour of H2 in reduced water, which was activated by a platinum electrode, differed from that of H2 introduced by bubbling of hydrogen gas. The former decreased H2O2, whereas the latter did not. These results suggest strongly that the increase in superoxide dismutation activity, with a proton donor such as L-ascorbic acid, is due to an increase in the dissociation activity of water while the scavenging activity for H2O2 is due to activated dissolved H2 in the reduced water.

Anti-inflammatory properties of molecular hydrogen: investigation on parasite-induced liver inflammation

Molecular hydrogen reacts with the hydroxyl radical, a highly cytotoxic species produced in inflamed tissues. It has been suggested therefore to use gaseous hydrogen in a new anti-inflammatory strategy. We tested this idea, with the aid of the equipment and skills of COMEX SA in Marseille, a group who experiments with oxygen-hydrogen breathing mixtures for professional deep-sea diving. The model used was schistosomiasis-associated chronic liver inflammation. Infected animals stayed 2 weeks in an hyperbaric chamber in a normal atmosphere supplemented with 0.7 MPa hydrogen. The treatment had significant protective effects towards liver injury, namely decreased fibrosis, improvement of hemodynamics, increased NOSII activity, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, decreased lipid peroxide levels and decreased circulating TNF-alpha levels. Under the same conditions, helium exerted also some protective effects, indicating that hydroxyl radical scavenging is not the only protective mechanism. These findings indicate that the proposed anti-inflammatory strategy deserves further attention.