Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.

Treatment of Infectious Skin Defects or Ulcers with Electrolyzed Strong Acid Aqueous Solution

A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.


Alkaline ionized water (AKW) produced by the electrolysis of tap water (TPW) was given to pregnant rats throughout gestation. AKW was subsequently given to infants as a test group until 15 weeks old to determine changes in body and organ weights, erythrocyte hexokinase (HK) activity and histological preparations of myocardiac muscle. The results were compared with those for rats given TPW. Body weight of male and female rats given AKW at 3 to 11 weeks of age after birth significantly increased beyond control group values. Organ weights of offspring at 15weeks-old showed no statistical difference for either group. HK activity, the rate-determining enzyme in erythrocyte glycolysis, significantly increased in males given AKW at 15 weeks-old. This suggests that AKW intake causes elevation of metabolic activity. Hyperkalemia was observed in males and females given AKW at 15 weeks-old. Especially in males, pathological changes of necrosis in myocardiac muscle were observed.

Trial of Electrolyzed Strong Acid Aqueous Solution Lavage in the Treatment of Peritonitis and Intraperitoneal Abscess

Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is acidic water that contains active oxygen and active chlorine and possesses a redox potential. We performed peritoneal and abscess lavages with an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution to treat 7 patients with peritonitis and intraperitoneal abscesses, who were seen in our department between December 1994 and April 1995. The underlying disease was duodenal ulcer perforation in 4 of these 7 patients and gastric ulcer perforation, acute enteritis, and intraperitoneal perforation of pyometrium in 1 patient each. Irrigation was performed twice a day. Micro biological studies of the paracentesis fluid were negative in 3 cases, and the irrigation period was 2–4 days. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 3 of the 4 positive cases (Bacteroides in 2, Prevotella in l), and a fungus (Candida) was isolated in the remaining patient. The period of irrigation in these patients ranged from 9 to 12 days, but conversion to a microorganism negative state was observed in 3–7 days.

Decompression comparison of helium and hydrogen in rats

The hypothesis that there are differences in decompression risk between He and H2 was examined in 1,607 unanesthetized male albino rats subjected to dives on 2% O2-balance He or 2% O2-balance H2 (depths < or = 50 ATA, bottom times < or = 60 min). The animals were decompressed to 10.8 ATA with profiles varying from rapid to slow, with up to four decompression stops of up to 60 min each. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to estimate the relative decompression risk on a per unit pressure basis (termed 'potency') and the rate of gas uptake and elimination, both factors affecting the decompression sickness risk, from a specific dive profile. H2 potency for causing decompression sickness was found to be up to 35% greater than that for He. Uptake rates were unresolvable between the two gases with the time constant (TC) estimated at approximately 2-3 min, leading to saturation in both cases in < 15 min. Washout of both gases was significantly slower than uptake, with He washout (TC approximately 1.5-3 h) substantially slower than H2 washout (TC approximately 0.5 h). It is unknown whether the decompression advantage of the faster washout of H2 or the disadvantage of its increased potency, observed in the rat, would be important for human diving.

Successful Treatment of Mediastinitis after Cardiovascular Surgery Using Electrolyzed Strong Acid Aqueous Solution

Dilute povidone-iodine solution has been widely used as an irrigant for the treatment of mediastinitis. However, its use is not without adverse effects and often cause? poor growth of pinulation tissues. To avoid the problems seen with the use of povidone-iodine solution, we applied electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution (ESAAS) to mediastinal irrigation in 4 patients (2 infants and 2 adults) who developed mediastinitis after cardiovascular surgery. According to the “open” method, the mediastinal wound was left open and irrigated with ESAAS 1 to 3 times a day until the infection was eradicated. Satisfactory growth of granulation tissues was observed in all patients treated with no evidence of adverse effects attributable to ESAAS. Delayed primary sternum closure was performed for 2 patients. and musculocutaneous transposition of rectus abdominis for 1. Our experience suggests that irrigation with ESAAS is a safe and effective method of therapy for mediastinitis. Keg Words: Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution—Mediastinitis—Median sternotomy—Povidone-iodine— Cardiovascular surgery—Postoperative complication.