RNA sequencing analysis reveals apoptosis induction by hydrogen treatment in endometrial cancer via TNF and NF-κB pathways

Background: To evaluate the activity of hydrogen in endometrial cancer and elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Ishikawa, HEC1A and AN3CA cells were incubated in DMEM medium with or without hydrogen. RNA sequencing was used to explore the association of hydrogen treatment with signaling pathways and functional genes in endometrial cancer cells. The apoptotic rates of the three endometrial cancer cells were evaluated by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) Annexin V and Annexin V-allophycocyanin (APC)/propidium iodide double staining. Results: RNA sequencing analysis revealed that hydrogen induced TNF/NF-κB and apoptosis pathways in endometrial cancer cells. The gene sets between hydrogen treatment groups and non-treated groups were mapped in accordance with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Hydrogen treatment significantly increased the apoptotic rates of endometrial cancer cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our data indicate that hydrogen can serve as a therapeutic target for endometrial cancer via TNF/NF-κB pathway and apoptosis induction.