The Role of LincRNA-EPS/Sirt1/Autophagy Pathway in the Neuroprotection Process by Hydrogen against OGD/R-Induced Hippocampal HT22 Cells Injury

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury causes high disability and mortality. Hydrogen (H2) enhances tolerance to an announced ischemic event; however, the therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of CI/R injury remain uncertain. Long non-coding RNA lincRNA-erythroid prosurvival (EPS) (lincRNA-EPS) regulate various biological processes, but their involvement in the effects of H2 and their associated underlying mechanisms still needs clarification. Herein, we examine the function of the lincRNA-EPS/Sirt1/autophagy pathway in the neuroprotection of H2 against CI/R injury. HT22 cells and an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) model were used to mimic CI/R injury in vitro. H2, 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor), and RAPA (an autophagy agonist) were then administered, respectively. Autophagy, neuro-proinflammation, and apoptosis were evaluated by Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence staining, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that H2 attenuated HT22 cell injury, which would be confirmed by the improved cell survival rate and decreased levels of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, H2 remarkably improved cell injury after OGD/R insult via decreasing pro-inflammatory factors, as well as suppressing apoptosis. Intriguingly, the protection of H2 against neuronal OGD/R injury was abolished by rapamycin. Importantly, the ability of H2 to promote lincRNA-EPS and Sirt1 expression and inhibit autophagy were abrogated by the siRNA-lincRNA-EPS. Taken together, the findings proved that neuronal cell injury caused by OGD/R is efficiently prevented by H2 via modulating lincRNA-EPS/Sirt1/autophagy-dependent pathway. It was hinted that lincRNA-EPS might be a potential target for the H2 treatment of CI/R injury.

Hydrogen-rich saline reverses oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture

Background: Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and survivors can present with cognitive dysfunction. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on oxidative stress in the brain, cognitive dysfunction, and mortality in a rat model of sepsis. Methods: A rat model of sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Physiologic saline or HRS was administered intraperitoneally (2.5 mL/kg or 10 mL/kg) 10 min before the operation. The survival rate was recorded, and cognitive function was tested using the Morris water maze. The reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus were observed to evaluate the oxidative stress levels. The caspase 3 levels were measured to detect apoptosis. The histopathologic changes in the hippocampus were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay. Results: Cecal ligation and puncture resulted in a poor survival rate, evidence of brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. The hippocampal reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels increased significantly, and superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly. HRS reversed these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: These findings indicate that HRS could attenuate the consequences of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats, at least in part, by the inhibition of oxidative stress.

Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion via Down-Regulating Chemerin and NLRP3 In Rats

Limb ischemia/reperfusion (LI/R) injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that hydrogen-rich solution could attenuateacute lung injury and improve mortality via chemerin and NLRP3 after LI/R in rats. A rat model of LI/R was performed by clamping the bilateral femoral arteries for 3 h followed by reperfusion. HRS was administered intraperitoneally (10 mL/kg or 2.5 mL/kg) when the atraumatic micro clips were released. The rats were euthanized at 2 h after reperfusion and then the arterial blood and lung specimens were harvested for further analyses. Meanwhile, survival rate was observed. The results showed that HRS improved the survival rate and attenuated pulmonary edema, injury and apoptosis. HRS also decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, interleukin(IL)-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in serum and lung after the LI/R event. HRS downregulated the expression of chemerin and NLRP3 in lung. The study demonstrated that chemerin and NLRP3 could serve as important response factors those were involved in the lung injury following LI/R. HRS could significantly attenuate LI/R-mediated acute lung injury, at least in part, by inhibiting the activated chemerin/NLRP3 signaling pathway.

Amelioration of Coagulation Disorders and Inflammation by Hydrogen-Rich Solution Reduces Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats through NF- κ B/NLRP3 Pathway

Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury often causes inflammatory responses and coagulation disorders, which is further promoting the deterioration of the disease. Hydrogen has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic properties against various diseases. However, the effect of hydrogen on coagulation dysfunction after intestinal I/R and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore whether hydrogen-rich solution (HRS) could attenuate coagulation disorders and inflammation to improve intestinal injury and poor survival following intestinal I/R. The rat model of intestinal I/R injury was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min and reperfusion for 2 h. HRS (10 or 20 mL/kg) or 20 mL/kg 0.9% normal saline was intravenously injected at 10 min before reperfusion, respectively. The samples were harvested at 2 h after reperfusion for further analyses. Moreover, the survival rate was observed for 24 h. The results showed that HRS improved the survival rate and alleviated serum diamine oxidase activities, intestinal injury, edema, and apoptosis. Interestingly, HRS markedly improved intestinal I/R-mediated coagulation disorders as evidenced by abnormal conventional indicators of coagulation and thromboelastography. Additionally, HRS attenuated inflammatory responses and the elevated tissue factor (TF) and inhibited nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, inflammatory factors and myeloperoxidase were closely associated with TF level. This study thus emphasized upon the amelioration of coagulation disorders and inflammation by HRS as a mechanism to improve intestinal I/R-induced intestinal injury and poor survival, which might be partially related to inhibition of NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway.