Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis

Background: Radiation often causes depletion of immunocytes in tissues and blood, which results in immunosuppression. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown in recent studies to have potential as a safe and effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that H2 could protect immunocytes from ionizing radiation (IR). Material/methods: H2 was dissolved in physiological saline or medium using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4′-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe was used to detect intracellular hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide (PI) staining as well as the caspase 3 activity. Finally, we examined the hematological changes using an automatic Sysmex XE 2100 hematology analyzer. Results: We demonstrated H2-rich medium pretreatment reduced •OH level in AHH-1 cells. We also showed H2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and splenocytes in living mice. Radiation-induced caspase 3 activation was also attenuated by H2 treatment. Finally, we found that H2 rescued the radiation-caused depletion of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT). Conclusions: This study suggests that H2 protected the immune system and alleviated the hematological injury induced by IR.

Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Solution on Aplastic Anemia in Vivo

Background: Aplasitc anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Though clinical symptoms could be ameliorated by bone marrow transplantation and/or immunosuppressive therapy, frequent recurrence and especially evolution of clonal hematologic diseases remains problematic clinically. Cytokines such as interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by autologous T cells are closely related with the development of AA. Hydrogen-rich solution was reported to inhibit the levels of cytokines including INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in vivo in recent studies. This study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich solution on AA in vivo. Methods: AA model was determined in vivo by mice and body weights of the mice were used as the basic physiological index. Peripheral blood cells were calculated to evaluate the hematologic recovery degree. Bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs), tissue histology, as well as CFU-S and CFU-GM forming units were used to evaluate the recovery of bone marrow microenvironment. The ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were examined along with cytokine levels in serum to determine the efficacy of H2-rich solution on the affected immunological functions. Results: Body weight and number of peripheral blood cells were significantly improved for mice in the H2-rich solution treated groups as compared with those with AA. The number of BMNCs and CFUs increased markedly and the bone marrow microenvironment was also improved significantly. The experimental group restrained the cell apoptosis, relieved hyperemia and accelerated tissue repair. The number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells as well as the ratio of CD4/CD8 increased to normal gradually, while the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in serum decreased after H2-rich solution treatment. Conclusion: Our study firstly showed that hydrogen-rich solution accelerated the recovery of either hematological or immunological recovery on aplastic anemia mice. This finding suggests hydrogen-rich solution as a potential clinical therapeutic agent for AA. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Molecular hydrogen protects human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells against 12C6+ heavy ion radiation

Purpose: To investigate the potential protective role of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) against (12)C(6+) heavy ion radiation, which is a major hazard for space travel and has been also widely used in heavy ion radiotherapy. Materials and methods: H(2) was dissolved in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium under high pressure (0.4 Mpa) to a saturated level by using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4′-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe and a 2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFH-DA) fluorescent dye were used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Cell apoptosis were determined by double-staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) as well as a Hoechst 33342 staining method alternatively. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis was performed using a PI staining method and the expression of apoptotic protein was examined by Western blot. Results: In this study, we demonstrated H(2) reduced ROS level in Human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells as well as in the radiolysis of water. Our data also showed H(2) attenuated (12)C(6+) radiation- induced cell apoptosis and also alleviated radiation-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Heavy ion radiation-induced Caspase 3 activation was also inhibited by H(2) treatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, these data showed that H(2) attenuated (12)C(6+) radiation-induced cell apoptosis through reducing the ROS level and modulating apoptotic molecules, thus indicating the potential of H(2) as a safe and effective radioprotectant.

Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction

Recent studies showed that hydrogen can be used as an effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effects of hydrogen on immune system in mice. H2 was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. Spleen index and histological analysis were used to evaluate the splenic structural damage. Spleen superoxide dismutase, GSH, MDA were measured to appraise the antioxidant capacity and a DCF assay for the measurement of radical oxygen species. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by an Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining method as well as the apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and c-caspase-3. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subtypes were detected by flow cytometry with FITC-labelled antimouse CD4 and PE antimouse CD8 staining. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the CD4+ T cell subtypes and related cytokines. Our study demonstrated that pre-treatment with H2 could increase the spleen index and attenuate the radiation damage on splenic structure. Radical oxygen species level was also reduced by H2 treatment. H2 also inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in splenocytes and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins in living mice. Radiation-induced imbalance of T cells was attenuated by H2 . Finally, we found that H2 could regulate the polarization of CD4+ T cells and the level of related cytokines. This study suggests H2 as an effective radioprotective agent on immune system by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR). All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM) observation, forced swim test (FST), the open field test (OFT), the chromosome aberration (CA), the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA), the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.