Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the l-arginine (l-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of l-Arg, each at concentrations of 250mg/100g body weight, with an interval of 1h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6mM, 6ml/kg) or saline (6ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15min after each l-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of l-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

The Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on the Contractile and Structural Changes of Intestine Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

Background: Hydrogen has been considered as a novel antioxidant that prevents injuries resulted from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various tissues. The study was designed to determine the effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the smooth muscle contractile response to KCl, and on epithelial proliferation and apoptosis of intestine subjected to I/R. Methods: Intestinal I/R injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using bulldog clamps in superior mesenteric artery by 45 min ischemia followed by 1 h reperfusion. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: sham-operated, I/R, I/R plus saline treatment, and I/R plus hydrogen-rich saline treatment groups. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 mL/kg) or saline (6 mL/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 30 min prior to reperfusion. Following reperfusion, segments of terminal jejunum were rapidly taken and transferred into isolated organ bath and responses to KCl were recorded. Samples of terminal jejunum were also taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in intestinal epithelium was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression and distribution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Results: Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury, with inhibiting of I/R-induced apoptosis, and promoting enterocytes proliferation. Moreover, Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly limited the neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation, and ameliorated the decreased contractility response to KCl in the intestine subjected to I/R. Conclusions: These results suggest that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against intestinal contractile dysfunction and damage induced by intestinal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and to promote epithelial cell proliferation.