Hydrogen-rich medium ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via up-regulating HO-1 expression

Background: Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. It has been showed that the change of mitochondrial dynamics has been proved to be one of the main causes of death in patients with severe sepsis. And hydrogen has been proved to exert its protective effects against sepsis via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study was designed to demonstrate that whether the benefit effects of hydrogen can maintain the dynamic process of mitochondrial fusion/fission to mitigate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injury exposed to endotoxin through HO-1. Methods: HUVECs cells cultured with medium which contained Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Saline, hydrogen, Mdivi-1 (a dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] inhibitor) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (Znpp) (a HO-1 inhibitor) were also used in the research. Cell death and apoptosis were assessed using FITC annexin V and PI. Mitochondria were stained with Mitotracker orange and observed by confocal microscope. Oxygen consumption rate was assessed by seahorse xf24 extracellular analyzer. Mitochondrial membrane potential monitored by JC-1 dye. The expressions of Drp1 and HO-1 were tested by Western blot. The co-localization of Drp1 and mitochondria was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: LPS caused a decrease in ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and maximal respiration rate. At the same time, increased expression of Drp1 were observed in LPS-stimulated HUVECs, concomitantly with excessive mitochondrial fission. We found that hydrogen-rich medium can increase ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential and maximal respiration rate, and decrease the expression of Drp1 in LPS-treated HUVECs. Meanwhile, hydrogen can ameliorate excessive mitochondrial fission caused by LPS. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich medium had a similar effect to Mdivi-1, a mitochondrial fission blocker. Both of them rescued the up-regulation of Drp1 and mitochondrial fission induced by LPS, then normalized mitochondrial shape after LPS stimulation. But after Znpp pretreatment, HO-1 expression was inhibited and the protective effects of hydrogen were abrogated. Conclusions: Hydrogen-rich medium can alleviate the LPS-induced mitochondrial fusion/fission and dysfunction in HUVECs via HO-1 up-regulation.

High concentration of hydrogen gas alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury via activating Nrf2 signaling pathway in mice

Background and aims: The lung is the first organ to fail in sepsis. Our previous studies have proven that 2% molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation remain a protective effect on a septic animal model via its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties. This current research aims to observe the therapeutic effect of high concentration hydrogen (67%, HCH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI), and further investgate the role of Nrf2 signaling pathway. Methods: ALI model was induced by LPS areosol inhalation. HCH were treated for 1 h at 1 and 6 h after modelling. Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected 4 and 24 h after the exposure of LPS. The histological scores, wet/dry weight ratios, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, protein content and cytokine levels in BALF, apoptosis condition of lung cells, expression of Nrf2 and NF-κB were assessed in both wild type and Nrf2-knockout mice. Results: HCH Inhalation significantly alleviated LPS-induced pathological alterations of lung, and reduced the protein concentration, the wet/dry weight ratio, and the MPO activity of lung tissue. HCH Inhalation improved LPS-induced increasement in caspase-3 activity and the number of TUNEL-positive cells. HCH inhalation attenuated the LPS induced increased total cell content and polymorphonuclear granulocyte content, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, Nrf2 and NF-κB expression. HCH could not produce protective effct in Nrf2-knockout mice. Conclusion: HCH can effectively alleviate LPS-induced ALI, which may be related to activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibition of inflammatory response and cell apoptosis mediated by NF-κB.