In the type 2 diabetes, it has become clear that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause reduction of glucose uptake by inhibiting the insulin-signaling pathway in muscle cells and adipocytes. We demonstrated that electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) scavenges ROS and protects DNA from oxidative damage1). Here we found that ERW scavenges ROS in insulin-responsive L6 myotubes and mouse3T3/L1 adipocytes. Uptake of 1-deoxy-D- glucose (2-DOG) into both L6 cells and 3T3/L1 cells was stimulated by ERW in the presence or absence of insulin. This insulin-like activity of ERW was mediated by the activation of PI-3 kinase, resulting in stimulation of translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 from microsome to plasma membrane. These results suggest that ERW may be useful to improve insulin-independent type 2 diabetes.
Electrolyzed reduced water and natural waters such as Hita Tenryosui water in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tracote water in Mexico, which are known to improve various diseases, were all and- oxidative waters which could scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species. The and-oxidative waters stimulated not only the glucose uptake of rat myotube L6 cells, but also the secretion of insulin from a pancreatic beta cell line HIT-T15. The anti-oxidative waters improved the damage in the sugar tolerance test of type 2 diabetes model mice (db/db mice). A clinical investigation demonstrated that Nordenau water could significantly improve the diabetes mellitus.
Recent studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species9ROS9and the resulting oxidative stress play an important role in apoptosis. Apoptosis is implicated in pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Antioxidants can block or delay apoptosis. We have demonstrated that reduced water (RW) such as hydrogen-rich electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) and natural reduced waters (NRW) like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany could scavenge ROS and stimulate glucose intake into muscle and adipocytes. This study investigated the effect of reduced water9RW9on oxygen radicals and apoptosis of pancreatic β -cells by alloxan. Incubation of HIT-T15 cells with alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, resulted in the increased intracellular ROS level, a decrease in viability of cells, the formation of DNA fragmentation and Sub-G1 phase. The generation of ROS, the formation of DNA fragmentation and Sub-G1 phase, the lowering of cell viability by alloxan toxicity can be suppressed by treatment with RW. In contrast, HIT-T15 cells treated with Mineral water were not observed. These results suggest that RW protected pancreatic β-cell from the alloxan-induced apoptosis by preventing the alloxan-derived oxygen radical generation.
The analysis using the DBNBS reduction method and the DCFH-DA intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination method revealed that ERW and diseases-improvable natural waters such as Nordenau water in Germany and Hita water in Japan were all reduced waters (RWs) which could function as active hydrogen donors and intracellular ROS scavengers. RWs suppressed the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), which inactivates insulin receptor, suggesting their anti-type 2 diabetes effects via redox regulation. The clinical test of 356 diabetes patients drinking Nordenau water in Germany resulted in the improvement of the relevant tests parameters after 6 days, suggesting the correlation of these changes with the fluctuation of ROS levels in their blood.