As the most important natural antioxidants in plant extracts, polyphenols demonstrate versatile bioactivities and are susceptible to oxidation. The commonly used ultrasonic extraction often causes oxidation reactions involving the formation of free radicals. To minimize the oxidation effects during the ultrasonic extraction process, we designed a hydrogen (H2)-protected ultrasonic extraction method and used it in Chrysanthemum morifolium extraction. Hydrogen-protected extraction improved the total antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and polyphenol content of Chrysanthemum morifolium water extract (CME) compared with air and nitrogen (N2) conditions. We further investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of CME on palmitate (PA)-induced endothelial dysfunction in human aorta endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that hydrogen-protected CME (H2-CME) best-prevented impairment in nitric oxide (NO) production, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein level, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, H2-CME prevented PA-induced endothelial dysfunction by restoring mitofusin-2 (MFN2) levels and maintaining redox balance.
To investigate the role of FOXO3a in process of hydrogen-rich saline attenuating global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Seventy-two male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 280-320 g, were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12 each) : sham operation group (group I), cerebral ischemia-reperfusion group (group II), hydrogen-rich saline group (group III), vehicle group (group IV), JNK inhibitor SP600125 group (group V), JNK inhibitor+hydrogen-rich saline group (group VI). Global cerebral I/R was produced by transesophageal pacing inducing cardiac arrest (CA) method. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and mechanical ventilation was implemented at the end of 4 min for CA. In groups III and VI, hydrogen-rich saline 5 ml/kg was intraperitoneally immediately and 6 hours after reperfusion, while equel volume of nomal saline was injected in the other four groups. The rats in groups V and VI received intracerebroventricular injection of JNK inhibitor SP600125 10 µl 30 min before ischemia, while group IV received intracerebroventricular injection of equal volume of DMSO. Neuro Deficit Score (NDS) was evaluated at 24 h of reperfusion. Then rats were sacrificed, and the global brain tissues were obtained and stained with HE for examination of the changes in pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus. The bilateral hippocampi were romoved for detection of the expression of p-JNK, JNK and FOXO3a using Western Blotting. Compared with group I, the expression of p-JNK, nuclear FOXO3a and the level of NDS were significantly up-regulated, and the number of pyramidal cells and was decreased in group II and IV. Compared with group II, the expression of p-JNK, nuclear FOXO3a and the level of NDS were significantly down-regulated, and the number of pyramidal cells was increased in group III, V and VI. Hydrogen-rich saline can attenuate global cerebral I/R injure through inhibiting JNK, reducing the expression of FOXO3a.
Diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by profound lipid accumulation and associated with an inflammatory response, oxidative stress and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that some mitochondrial nutrients effectively ameliorated high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis and metabolic disorders. Molecular hydrogen in hydrogen-rich liquid or inhaling gas, which has been confirmed in scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing mitochondrial decay, improved metabolic syndrome in patients and animal models. Coral calcium hydride (CCH) is a new solid molecular hydrogen carrier made of coral calcium. However, whether and how CCH impacts HFD-induced hepatic steatosis remains uninvestigated. In the present study, we applied CCH to a HFD-induced NAFLD rat model for 13 weeks. We found that CCH durably generated hydrogen in vivo and in vitro. CCH treatment significantly reduced body weight gain, improved glucose and lipid metabolism and attenuated hepatic steatosis in HFD-induced obese rats with no influence on food and water intake. Moreover, CCH effectively improved HFD-induced hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced oxidative stress, and activated phase II enzymes. Our results suggest that CCH is an efficient hydrogen-rich agent, which could prevent HFD-induced NAFLD via activating phase II enzymes and improving mitochondrial function.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) associated with excess calorie intake has become a great public health concern worldwide. L-arabinose, a naturally occurring plant pentose, has a promising future as a novel food ingredient with benefits in MS; yet the mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. Gut microbiota is recently recognized to play key roles in MS. Molecular hydrogen, an emerging medical gas with reported benefits in MS, can be produced and utilized by gut microbes. Here we show oral L-arabinose elicited immediate and robust release of hydrogen in mice in a dose-and-time-dependent manner while alleviating high-fat-diet (HFD) induced MS including increased body weight especially fat weight, impaired insulin sensitivity, liver steatosis, dyslipidemia and elevated inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, L-arabinose modulated gene-expressions involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in key metabolic tissues. Antibiotics treatment abolished L-arabinose-elicited hydrogen production independent of diet type, confirming gut microbes as the source of hydrogen. q-PCR of fecal 16S rDNA revealed modulation of relative abundances of hydrogen-producing and hydrogen-consuming gut microbes as well as probiotics by HFD and L-arabinose. Our data uncovered modulating gut microbiota and hydrogen yield, expression of genes governing lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in metabolic tissues is underlying L-arabinose’s benefits in MS.