Cardiac hypertrophy occurs as a result of high levels of thyroid hormone, which may contribute to heart failure and is closely related to oxidative stress. Hydrogen is a good antioxidant. In this study, we found that intragastric levothyroxine administration for two weeks caused obvious cardiac hypertrophy without reduced systolic function. Additionally, hydrogen inhalation ameliorated the levothyroxine-induced metabolic increase and cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Serum brain natriuretic peptide expression was also attenuated by hydrogen treatment. However, hydrogen had no significant effect on levothyroxine -induced serum troponin I and serum thyroid hormone changes. Hydrogen treatment also reduced the levothyroxine-induced increase in cardiac malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and serum hydrogen peroxide levels and upregulated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Additionally, western blotting results showed that hydrogen inhalation inhibited the expression of cardiac nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2), angiotensin II type 1 receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2), phospho-phospholamban and α-myosin heavy chain proteins. In conclusion, the present study revealed a protective effect of hydrogen on levothyroxine -induced cardiac hypertrophy by regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptors and NOX2-mediated oxidative stress in rats.