Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important factor in the development of skin lesions in diabetes. A new antioxidant, hydrogen, can selectively neutralize hydroxyl radicals (OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in cell-free systems, whereas it seldom reacts with other ROS. Fibroblasts are a key component of skin. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich medium on human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) under oxidative stress. Confocal microscopy was used to assay both the intracellular superoxide anion () concentration and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ). Cell viability was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The concentrations of cellular malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) were also measured. The results revealed that both mannitol and high glucose could cause oxidative stress in HSFs. Interestingly, the use of a hydrogen-rich medium significantly reduced the level of intracellular , stabilized the ΔΨ and attenuated production of MDA, 8-OHdG and 3-NT which efficiently enhanced the antioxidative defense system and protected the HSFs from subsequent oxidative stress damage. In other words, hydrogen decreased the excessive generation of intracellular and elevated the cellular antioxidative defense. Based on our results, hydrogen may have applications in the treatment of skin diseases caused by diabetes.