Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of periodontitis. As molecular hydrogen can act as a scavenger of ROS, we examined the effects of treatment with hydrogen-rich water on a rat model of periodontitis. A ligature was placed around the maxillary molars for 4 weeks to induce periodontitis, and the animals were given drinking water with or without hydrogen-rich water. The rats with periodontitis which were treated with pure water showed a time-dependent increase in serum ROS level. Compared with the rats without periodontitis, the periodontitis-induced rats which were given pure water also showed polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration and alveolar bone loss at 4 weeks. Hydrogen-rich water intake inhibited an increase in serum ROS level and lowered expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine in the periodontal tissue at 4 weeks. Such conditions prevented polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration and osteoclast differentiation following periodontitis progression. Furthermore, inflammatory signalling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, were less activated in periodontal lesions from hydrogen-rich water-treated rats as compared with pure water-treated rats. Consuming hydrogen-rich water might be beneficial in suppressing periodontitis progression by decreasing gingival oxidative stress.
Objective: Periodontitis has been causally linked to atherosclerosis, which is mediated by the oxidative stress. As hydrogen-rich water (HW) scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), we hypothesized that HW could prevent lipid deposition induced by periodontitis in the aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HW on the initiation of atherosclerosis in a rat periodontitis model. Design: Eighteen 8-wk-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six rats; the periodontitis group, periodontitis+HW group and the no treatment (control) group. In the periodontitis and periodontitis+HW groups, periodontitis was induced using a ligature for 4 wk, while the periodontitis+HW group was given water containing 800-1000 μg/L hydrogen during the 4-wk experimental period. Results: In the periodontitis group, lipid deposition in the descending aorta was observed. The periodontitis group also showed significant higher serum levels for ROS and oxidised low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (ox-LDL) (1.7 and 1.4 times, respectively), and higher aortic expression levels of nitrotyrosine and hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) (7.9 and 16.0 times, respectively), as compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the periodontitis+HW group, lipid deposition was lower. Lower serum levels of ROS and ox-LDL (0.46 and 0.82 times, respectively) and lower aortic levels of nitrotyrosine and HEL (0.27 and 0.19 times, respectively) were observed in the periodontitis+HW group than in the periodontitis group (p<0.05). Conclusions: HW intake may prevent lipid deposition in the rat aorta induced by periodontitis by decreasing serum ox-LDL levels and aortic oxidative stress.
Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.