Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

Our aim was to assess the protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT). DCE-CT studies were performed in 30 rats (8 weeks old) on days 0, 2, 4 and 7 using multidetector row CT. The rats were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 6) with free access to standard water and without cisplatin injection, a non-treatment group (n = 12) with free access to standard water and injected with cisplatin (3.6 mg kg(-1) body weight) intraperitoneally on day 0 and a treatment group (n = 12) with free access to hydrogen-rich water starting from 7 days before cisplatin injection. The contrast clearance per unit renal volume (K(1)) was estimated from the DCE-CT data using the Patlak model. The contrast clearance of the entire kidney (K) was obtained by multiplying K(1) by the renal volume. The serum creatinine level was also measured on day 7. The K(1) and K values normalised by those on day 0 in the treatment group were significantly greater than those in the non-treatment group on days 2, 4 and 7. There were no significant differences in the normalised K value between the treatment and control groups on days 2 and 7. The serum creatinine level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the non-treatment group and was not significantly different from that in the control group. This study demonstrated that hydrogen-rich water ameliorates renal dysfunction due to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging

The aim of this study was to assess the mechanism of the protective effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW) against cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apparent transverse relaxation time-weighted images (T2 WI) were acquired in 28 rats. The control group (n = 7) had free access to standard water (SW) and no CP injection. The CP group (n = 7) had free access to SW and was given a CP injection on day 0. The CP+HW group (n = 7) had free access to HW and had a CP injection. The HW group (n = 7) had free access to HW and no CP injection. The apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2) was estimated from T2 WI. In the CP+HW group, the R2 value in the medulla normalized by the value of the day 0 was significantly greater than that in the CP group on days 4 and 7. The creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels in the CP group were significantly higher than those in the control, CP+HW, and HW groups. BOLD MRI may be useful for demonstrating the change in R2 in CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The changes in the CP+HW group were suspected to be due to a reduction of cytotoxic oxygen radicals.

Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging

Purpose: We assessed intrarenal oxygenation in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (GIN) and the protective effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW) against GIN using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and methods: We acquired T(2)*-weighted images (T(2)*WI) of 21 rats on Days 0, 2, 4, and 7 using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system. The rats were divided into 3 groups of seven each: control rats had free access to standard water and no gentamicin (GM) injection; rats designated the GM group had free access to standard water and were injected with GM (80 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 7 days; and the third group, designated the GM+HW group, had free access to HW and were injected with GM. R(2)* (=1/T(2)*) was estimated from T(2)*WI. Results: R(2)* values in the cortex were significantly decreased on Days 2, 4, and 7 compared with those on Day 0 in the GM group but not significantly changed in the control and GM+HW groups. R(2)* values in the medulla did not change significantly in any group. Conclusions: Our findings suggested reduced oxygen utility, mainly in the cortex, in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and an ameliorative effect of hydrogen-rich water against GIN.