Hydrogen-rich water is conventionally prepared by direct current-electrolysis, but has been not or scarcely prepared by alternating current (AC)-electrolysis. The AC preparations from tap water for 20-30 minutes exhibit a dissolved hydrogen concentration of 1.55 mg/L, which was close to the theoretical maximum value of 1.6 mg/L. These preparations also displayed an oxidation-reduction potential of -270 mV (tap water: +576 mV) and pH of 7.7-7.8, being closer to physiological values of body fluids than general types of direct current-electrolytic hydrogen-rich water. We examined whether AC-electrolytic hydrogen-water is retained for hydrogen-abundance after boiling or for antioxidant abilities, and whether the oral administration of this water is clinically effective for diabetes and prevention against systemic DNA-oxidative injuries. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trapping and electron spin resonance revealed that the hydrogen-rich water generated by AC-electrolysis exhibited hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activities. Laser nanoparticle tracking method revealed that nanoparticle suspensions as abundant as 5.4 × 107/mL were efficiently retained (up to 3.5 × 107/mL) even after boiling for 10 minutes, being thermodynamically contrary to Henry’s law. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water, 1500 mL per day, lasted for 8 weeks in nine people with the diabetes-related serum markers beyond the normal ranges. The subjects exhibited significant tendencies for the decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine, and for the increased 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, concomitantly with significant decreases in urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine contents and its rate of generation. Hydrogen-rich water prepared by AC-electrolysis may be effective in improving diverse diabetes-related markers and systemic DNA oxidative injuries through the formation of abundant heat-resistant nanobubbles and the increased hydrogen concentrations. The study protocol was officially approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Japanese Center for Anti-Aging Medical Sciences (approval No. 01S02) on September 15, 2009.