Hydrogen gas with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after prolonged cardiac arrest in rats

Background: Despite the benefits of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in cohorts of selected patients with cardiac arrest (CA), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) includes an artificial oxygenation membrane and circuits that contact the circulating blood and induce excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, resulting in coagulopathy and endothelial cell damage. There is currently no pharmacological treatment that has been proven to improve outcomes after CA/ECPR. We aimed to test the hypothesis that administration of hydrogen gas (H2) combined with ECPR could improve outcomes after CA/ECPR in rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to 20 min of asphyxial CA and were resuscitated by ECPR. Mechanical ventilation (MV) was initiated at the beginning of ECPR. Animals were randomly assigned to the placebo or H2 gas treatment groups. The supplement gas was administered with O2 through the ECMO membrane and MV. Survival time, electroencephalography (EEG), brain functional status, and brain tissue oxygenation were measured. Changes in the plasma levels of syndecan-1 (a marker of endothelial damage), multiple cytokines, chemokines, and metabolites were also evaluated. Results: The survival rate at 4 h was 77.8% (7 out of 9) in the H2 group and 22.2% (2 out of 9) in the placebo group. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that H2 significantly improved the 4 h-survival endpoint (log-rank P = 0.025 vs. placebo). All animals treated with H2 regained EEG activity, whereas no recovery was observed in animals treated with placebo. H2 therapy markedly improved intra-resuscitation brain tissue oxygenation and prevented an increase in central venous pressure after ECPR. H2 attenuated an increase in syndecan-1 levels and enhanced an increase in interleukin-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, and leptin levels after ECPR. Metabolomics analysis identified significant changes at 2 h after CA/ECPR between the two groups, particularly in D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism. Conclusions: H2 therapy improved mortality in highly lethal CA rats rescued by ECPR and helped recover brain electrical activity. The underlying mechanism might be linked to protective effects against endothelial damage. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of H2 on ischemia-reperfusion injury in critically ill patients who require ECMO support.

H2 gas improves functional outcome after cardiac arrest to an extent comparable to therapeutic hypothermia in a rat model

All clinical and biological manifestations related to postcardiac arrest (CA) syndrome are attributed to ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs including brain and heart. Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) has potential as a novel antioxidant. This study tested the hypothesis that inhalation of H(2) gas starting at the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) could improve the outcome of CA. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by transcutaneous electrical epicardial stimulation in rats. After 5 minutes of the subsequent CA, rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups at the beginning of CPR: mechanical ventilation (MV) with 2% N(2) and 98% O(2) under normothermia (37°C), the control group; MV with 2% H(2) and 98% O(2) under normothermia; MV with 2% N(2) and 98% O(2) under therapeutic hypothermia (TH), 33°C; and MV with 2% H(2) and 98% O(2) under TH. Mixed gas inhalation and TH continued until 2 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). H(2) gas inhalation yielded better improvement in survival and neurological deficit score (NDS) after ROSC to an extent comparable to TH. H(2) gas inhalation, but not TH, prevented a rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and increase in serum IL-6 level after ROSC. The salutary impact of H(2) gas was at least partially attributed to the radical-scavenging effects of H(2) gas, because both 8-OHdG- and 4-HNE-positive cardiomyocytes were markedly suppressed by H(2) gas inhalation after ROSC. Inhalation of H(2) gas is a favorable strategy to mitigate mortality and functional outcome of post-CA syndrome in a rat model, either alone or in combination with TH.

Hydrogen Inhalation During Normoxic Resuscitation Improves Neurological Outcome in a Rat Model of Cardiac Arrest Independently of Targeted Temperature Management

Background: We have previously shown that hydrogen (H2) inhalation, begun at the start of hyperoxic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, significantly improves brain and cardiac function in a rat model of cardiac arrest. Here, we examine the effectiveness of this therapeutic approach when H2 inhalation is begun on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) under normoxic conditions, either alone or in combination with targeted temperature management (TTM). Methods and results: Rats were subjected to 6 minutes of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Five minutes after achieving ROSC, post-cardiac arrest rats were randomized into 4 groups: mechanically ventilated with 26% O2 and normothermia (control); mechanically ventilated with 26% O2, 1.3% H2, and normothermia (H2); mechanically ventilated with 26% O2 and TTM (TTM); and mechanically ventilated with 26% O2, 1.3% H2, and TTM (TTM+H2). Animal survival rate at 7 days after ROSC was 38.4% in the control group, 71.4% in the H2 and TTM groups, and 85.7% in the TTM+H2 group. Combined therapy of TTM and H2 inhalation was superior to TTM alone in terms of neurological deficit scores at 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC, and motor activity at 7 days after ROSC. Neuronal degeneration and microglial activation in a vulnerable brain region was suppressed by both TTM alone and H2 inhalation alone, with the combined therapy of TTM and H2 inhalation being most effective. Conclusions: H2 inhalation was beneficial when begun after ROSC, even when delivered in the absence of hyperoxia. Combined TTM and H2 inhalation was more effective than TTM alone.

Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Is Beneficial for Preventing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats

Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of a novel antioxidant, hydrogen (H2) gas, on the severity of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in a rat model. Methods: CIAKI was induced in rats by intravenous injection of a contrast medium, Ioversol, in addition to reagents inhibiting prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthesis. During the injection of these reagents, the rats inhaled H2 gas or control gas. Results: One day after the injection, serum levels of urea nitrogen were significantly lower in H2 gas-inhaling CIAKI rats (17.6 ± 2.3 mg/dl) than those in control gas-treated CIAKI rats (36.0 ± 7.3 mg/dl), although they both were elevated as compared to untreated rats (14.9 ± 0.9 mg/dl). Consistently, creatinine clearance in H2 gas-treated CIAKI rats was higher than that in control gas-treated counterparts. Renal histological analysis revealed that the formation of proteinaceous casts and tubular necrosis was improved by H2 gas inhalation. Mechanistic analyses showed that inhalation of H2 gas significantly reduced renal cell apoptosis, expression of cleaved caspase 3, and expression of an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in injured kidneys. Conclusion: Results suggest that H2 gas inhalation is effective in ameliorating the severity of CIAKI in rats by reducing renal cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Feasibility and Safety of Hydrogen Gas Inhalation for Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome – First-in-Human Pilot Study

Background: Hydrogen gas inhalation (HI) ameliorates cerebral and cardiac dysfunction in animal models of post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). HI for human patients with PCAS has never been studied.Methods and Results:Between January 2014 and January 2015, 21 of 107 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest achieved spontaneous return of circulation. After excluding 16 patients with specific criteria, 5 patients underwent HI together with target temperature management (TTM). No undesirable effects attributable to HI were observed and 4 patients survived 90 days with a favorable neurological outcome. Conclusions: HI in combination with TTM is a feasible therapy for patients with PCAS.

Hydrogen gas inhalation inhibits progression to the ‘irreversible’ stage of shock after severe hemorrhage in rats

Background: Mortality of hemorrhagic shock primarily depends on whether or not the patients can endure the loss of circulating volume until radical treatment is applied. We investigated whether hydrogen (H2) gas inhalation would influence the tolerance to hemorrhagic shock and improve survival. Methods: Hemorrhagic shock was achieved by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial blood pressure reached 30-35 mm Hg. After 60 minutes of shock, the rats were resuscitated with a volume of normal saline equal to four times the volume of shed blood. The rats were assigned to either the H2 gas (1.3% H2, 26% O2, 72.7% N2)-treated group or the control gas (26% O2, 74% N2)-treated group. Inhalation of the specified gas mixture began at the initiation of blood withdrawal and continued for 2 hours after fluid resuscitation. Results: The survival rate at 6 hours after fluid resuscitation was 80% in H2 gas-treated rats and 30% in control gas-treated rats (p < 0.05). The volume of blood that was removed through a catheter to induce shock was significantly larger in the H2 gas-treated rats than in the control rats. Despite losing more blood, the increase in serum potassium levels was suppressed in the H2 gas-treated rats after 60 minutes of shock. Fluid resuscitation completely restored blood pressure in the H2 gas-treated rats, whereas it failed to fully restore the blood pressure in the control gas-treated rats. At 2 hours after fluid resuscitation, blood pressure remained in the normal range and metabolic acidosis was well compensated in the H2 gas-treated rats, whereas we observed decreased blood pressure and uncompensated metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia in the surviving control gas-treated rats. Conclusions: H2 gas inhalation delays the progression to irreversible shock. Clinically, H2 gas inhalation is expected to stabilize the subject until curative treatment can be performed, thereby increasing the probability of survival after hemorrhagic shock.

Hydrogen gas inhalation alleviates oxidative stress in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of cardiac arrest. However, its effect on human post-cardiac arrest syndrome is unclear. We consecutively enrolled five comatose post-cardiac arrest patients (three males; mean age, 65 ± 15 years; four cardiogenic, one septic cardiac arrest) and evaluated temporal changes in oxidative stress markers and cytokines with inhaled hydrogen. All patients were treated with target temperature management. Hydrogen gas inhalation (2% hydrogen with titrated oxygen) was initiated upon admission for 18 h. Blood hydrogen concentrations, plasma and urine oxidative stress markers (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Nɛ-hexanoyl-lysine, lipid hydroperoxide), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) were measured before and 3, 9, 18, and 24 h after hydrogen gas inhalation. Arterial hydrogen concentration was measurable and it was equilibrated with inhaled hydrogen. Oxidative stress was reduced and cytokine levels were unchanged in cardiogenic patients, whereas oxidative stress was unchanged and cytokine levels were diminished in the septic patient. The effect of inhaled hydrogen on oxidative stress and cytokines in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients remains indefinite because of methodological weaknesses.