The protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

The hydrogen-rich water (HW) has been reported to possess a beneficial role in patients with diabetes. However, a systemic evaluation with an appropriate animal model is necessary to reveal its mechanisms and efficacy. Herein, the protective effects of drinking HW on lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats were investigated. The well-modeled T2DM rats (induced by high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection) were divided into two groups (n ≥ 15 of each): fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or HW at a constant concentration above 1.0 ppm; normal rats were used as control group (n ≥ 10): fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water. Several biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress ,and inflammation were evaluated after drinking distilled water or HW for 3 weeks. The effect of HW on liver, kidney, and spleen of T2DM rats was also analyzed by HE and Oil Red O staining. The results showed that drinking HW suppressed the increase in glucose, total cholesterol, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Moreover, HW also ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced liver, kidney, and spleen dysfunction. Overall, this study indicates that patients with T2DM may be able to improve their condition by supplementing HW as daily drinking water.