Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

Hydrogen (H(2)) reportedly produces an antioxidative effect by quenching cytotoxic oxygen radicals. We studied the biological effects of water with dissolved H(2) on ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dahl salt-sensitive rats (7 weeks old) were allowed ad libitum drinking of filtered water (FW: dissolved H(2), 0.00 ± 0.00 mg/L) or water with dissolved H(2) produced by electrolysis (EW: dissolved H(2), 0.35 ± 0.03 mg/L) for up to 6 weeks on a 0.5% salt diet. The rats then underwent ischemic reperfusion (I/R) of one kidney and were killed a week later for investigation of the contralateral kidney and the heart. In the rats given FW, unilateral kidney I/R induced significant increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, methylglyoxal and blood urea nitrogen. Histologically, significant increases were found in glomerular adhesion, cardiac fibrosis, number of ED-1 (CD68)-positive cells and nitrotyrosine staining in the contralateral kidney and the heart. In rats given EW, those findings were significantly ameliorated and there were significant histological differences between rats given FW and those given EW. Consumption of EW by ad libitum drinking has the potential to ameliorate ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in CKD model rats. This indicates a novel strategy of applying H(2) produced by water electrolysis technology for the prevention of CKD cardio-renal syndrome.

Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water

Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes.Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n = 30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks.The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress.