Effects of three hydrogen-rich liquids on hemorrhagic shock in rats

Background Hydrogen-rich saline provides a high concentration of hydrogen which selectively reduces levels of hydroxyl radicals and alleviates acute oxidative stress in many models. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of three different hydrogen-rich liquid resuscitation preparations on lung injury-induced uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS) in rats. Materials and methods A UHS rat model was prepared using the method of Capone et al. of arterial bleeding and tail amputation. Healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (10/group) to receive: Sham treatment; Ringer’s solution; hydrogen-rich Ringer’s solution (H-Ringer’s solution); hydroxyethyl starch (HES); hydrogen-rich hydroxyethyl starch (H-HES); hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch (HSH); and hydrogen-rich hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch (H-HSH). At 72 hours after successful resuscitation, lung tissue was HE stained to score any pathological changes. We also determined wet-to-dry (W/D) lung weight ratios and lung tissue concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), interleukin -10 (IL-10), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Results Compared with the Non-H groups, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in alveoli in the H groups was significantly reduced (P value), and capillary leakage and wall edema were ameliorated. Compared with the Sham group, pathologic pulmonary injury scores, W/D ratios, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and MDA concentrations, and MPO activity in the other groups were all increased, whereas SOD activity was decreased (P<0.01). Comparing the H-Ringer’s, H-HES, and H-HSH groups respectively with the Ringer’s, HES, and HSH groups, pathologic pulmonary injury scores, W/D ratios, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA concentrations, and MPO activity were all reduced, whereas IL-10 concentrations and SOD activity were increased (P<0.01). Conclusions Each hydrogen-rich liquid resuscitation preparation could protect the lung against acute injury secondary to UHS. These mechanisms may be associated with hydrogen inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, promoting anti-inflammatory cytokine release, and reducing oxidative damage.

Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock

Hydrogen is considered to be a novel antioxidant as it inhibits inflammation, removes oxygen-derived free radicals and reduces oxidative damage. This study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline on plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rats with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS). The UHS model was induced by arterial bleeding and tail amputation. The rats were randomly divided into: Group A (sham-operated group), Group B [shock + intravenously (IV) injected saline], Group C (shock + IV-injected hydrogen-rich saline), Group D [shock + intraperitoneally (IP) injected saline] and Group E (shock + IP-injected hydrogen-rich saline). The survival rate 24 h after successful resuscitation was calculated. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at 0, 30, 90 and 210 min. The plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-α, SOD and MDA were measured at 0, 90 and 210 min. The survival rate of each group was 100% and the hemodynamics among the experimental groups were not significantly different. At 90 and 210 min, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and MDA in Groups C and E were lower than those of Groups B and D, while the SOD levels were higher than those of Groups B and D (P<0.01). At 90 min, the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and MDA in Groups B and C were lower than those of Groups D and E, respectively (P<0.01). Hydrogen-rich saline has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in UHS. In conclusion, the results showed that itravenous injection of hydrogen-rich saline is more effective than intraperitonal injection.

Three hydrogen-rich solutions protect against intestinal injury in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock

Intestinal tissue got largely decreased blood supply in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, because of limited blood mainly supporting brain, heart, kidney etc. This makes intestine as the primary injury target after uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. However, limited studies focus on how to protect intestine against hemorrhagic shock. Ringer’s solution, pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline are widely used to resuscitate in haemorrhagic shock and sepsis tissue injury. Evidence showed that hydrogen inhibited inflammation and reduced oxidative damage. Here we tested the hypothesis whether hydrogen rich Ringer’s, pentoxifyline and hypertonic saline solutions increase the benefit in protecting small intestine from injury in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock rat model. We tested the anti-inflammation effect of H-Ringer’s, HHES and HHSH administration. We found hydrogen-rich solutions treatment groups showed the decreased MDA, MPO, IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and increased SOD, IL-10 comparing with those of non-hydrogen solutions administration groups. Our histological results showed that these three solutions with saturation hydrogen alleviatived the intestinal injury including the intact intestinal villi and less neutrephil infiltration. Our results indicate that these three hydrogen-rich solutions can protect intestinal injure after uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. The protective effect might be through inhibiting proinflammatory factors, promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing inflammatory cells infiltration. Our study has potential clinical importance of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock patient’s resuscitation.

Hydrogen-rich water attenuates the radiotoxicity induced by tritium exposure in vitro and in vivo

Radionuclide tritium is widely used in the nuclear energy production industry and creates a threat to human health through radiation exposure. Herein, the radioactive elimination and radioprotective effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), a potential antioxidant with various medical applications, on tritiated water (HTO) exposure, was studied in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that intragastric administration of HRW effectively promoted the elimination of urinary tritium, decreased the level of serum tritium and tissue-bound tritium (OBT), and attenuated the genetic damage of blood cells in mice exposed to HTO (18.5 MBq/kg). Pretreatment with HRW effectively reduces tritium accumulation in HTO-treated human blood B lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. In addition, the anti-oxidative properties of HRW could attenuate the increased intracellular ROS (such as O2•-, •OH and ONOO-), resulting in reversing the exhaustion of cellular endogenous antioxidants (reduced GSH and SOD), decreasing lipid peroxidation (MDA), relieving DNA oxidative damage, and depressing cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by HTO exposure. In conclusion, HRW is expected to be an effective radioactive elimination agent through the competition effect of isotope exchange or a radioprotective agent by scavenging free radicals induced by HTO exposure.