Objectives: Anti-oxidant effects of hydrogen have been reported in studies examining ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline on lung IRI. Methods: Lewis rats were divided into three groups: (i) sham, (ii) normal saline and (iii) hydrogen-rich saline. In the first experiment, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline for 1 h. Then, we measured the hydrogen concentration in the left lung using a sensor gas chromatograph ( N = 3 per group). In the second experiment, lung IRI was induced by occlusion of the left pulmonary hilum for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. During the ischaemic period, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline. After reperfusion, we assessed lung function, histological changes and cytokine production ( N = 5-7 per group). Results: Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline resulted in an elevated hydrogen concentration in the lung (6.9 ± 2.9 μmol/1 g lung). After IRI, pulmonary function (pulmonary compliance and oxygenation levels) was significantly higher in the hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P < 0.05). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) in the left lung were significantly lower in the hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline delivered hydrogen into the lung and consequently attenuated lung IRI. Hydrogen-rich solution appears to be a promising approach to managing lung IRI.
Background: Molecular hydrogen can reduce the oxidative stress of ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs for transplantation and potentially improve survival rates in recipients. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of a hydrogen-rich preservation solution against ischemia-reperfusion injury after cold ischemia in rat lung transplantation. Methods: Lewis rats were divided into a nontransplant group (n = 3), minimum-ischemia group (n = 3), cold ischemia group (n = 6), and cold ischemia with hydrogen-rich (more than 1.0 ppm) preservation solution group (n = 6). The rats in the nontransplant group underwent simple thoracotomy, and the rats in the remaining 3 groups underwent orthotopic left lung transplantation. The ischemic time was <30 minutes in the minimum-ischemia group and 6 hours in the cold ischemia groups. After 2-hour reperfusion, we evaluated arterial blood gas levels, pulmonary function, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and histologic features of the lung tissue. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: When compared with the nontransplant and minimum-ischemia groups, the cold ischemia group had lower dynamic compliance, lower oxygenation levels, and higher wet-to-dry weight ratios. However, these variables were significantly improved in the cold ischemia with hydrogen-rich preservation solution group. This group also had fewer signs of perivascular edema, lower interleukin-1β messenger RNA expression, and lower 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels than the cold ischemia group. Conclusions: The use of a hydrogen-rich preservation solution attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat lungs during cold ischemia through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Background: Molecular hydrogen (H2) has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs. Because they are easier to transport and safer to use than inhaled H2, H2-rich solutions are suitable for organ preservation. In this study, we examined the protective effects of an H2-rich solution for lung preservation in a canine left lung transplantation (LTx) model. Methods: Ten beagles underwent orthotopic left LTx after 23 hours of cold ischemia followed by reperfusion for 4 hours. Forty-five minutes after reperfusion, the right main pulmonary artery was clamped to evaluate the function of the implanted graft. The beagles were divided into two groups: control (CON group, n=5) and hydrogen (H2 group, n=5). In the CON group, the donor lungs were flushed and immersed during cold preservation at 4°C using ET-Kyoto solution, and in the H2 group, these were flushed and immersed using H2-rich ET-Kyoto solution. Physiological assessments were performed during reperfusion. After reperfusion, the wet-to-dry ratios were determined, and histological examinations were performed. Results: Significantly higher partial pressure of arterial oxygen and significantly lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide were observed in the H2 group than in the CON group (p=0.045 and p<0.001, respectively). The wet-to-dry ratio was significantly lower in the H2 group than in the CON group (p=0.032). Moreover, in histological examination, less lung injury and fewer apoptotic cells were observed in the H2 group (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the H2-rich preservation solution attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury in a canine left LTx model. (247 words).