In vitro fermentation properties of magnesium hydride and related modulation effects on broiler cecal microbiome and metabolome

Magnesium hydride (MGH), a highly promising hydrogen-producing substance/additive for hydrogen production through its hydrolysis reaction, has the potential to enhance broiler production. However, before incorporating MGH as a hydrogen-producing additive in broiler feed, it is crucial to fully understand its impact on microbiota and metabolites. In vitro fermentation models provide a fast, reproducible, and direct assessment tool for microbiota metabolism and composition. This study aims to investigate the effects of MGH and coated-magnesium hydride (CMG) on fermentation characteristics, as well as the microbiota and metabolome in the culture of in vitro fermentation using cecal inocula from broilers. After 48 h of incubation, it was observed that the presence of MGH had a significant impact on various factors. Specifically, the content of N-NH3 decreased, while the total hydrogen gas and total SCFAs increased. Furthermore, the presence of MGH promoted the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria such as Ruminococcus, Blautia, Coprobacillus, and Dysgonomonas. On the other hand, the presence of CMG led to an increase in the concentration of lactic acid, acetic acid, and valeric acid. Additionally, CMG affected the diversity of microbiota in the culture, resulting in an enrichment of the relative abundance of Firmicutes, as well as genera of Lactobacillus, Coprococcus, and Eubacterium. Conversely, the relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria and pathogenic bacteria Shigella decreased. Metabolome analysis revealed that MGH and CMG treatment caused significant changes in 21 co-regulated metabolites, primarily associated with lipid, amino acid, benzenoids, and organooxygen compounds. Importantly, joint correlation analysis revealed that MGH or CMG treatments had a direct impact on the microbiota, which in turn indirectly influenced metabolites in the culture. In summary, the results of this study suggested that both MGH and coated-MGH have similar yet distinct positive effects on the microbiota and metabolites of the broiler cecal in an in vitro fermentation model.

Intelligent microneedle patch with prolonged local release of hydrogen and magnesium ions for diabetic wound healing

Diabetes mellitus, an epidemic with a rapidly increasing number of patients, always leads to delayed wound healing associated with consistent pro-inflammatory M1 polarization, decreased angiogenesis and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the microenvironment. Herein, a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microneedle patch loaded with magnesium hydride (MgH2) (MN-MgH2) is manufactured for defeating diabetic wounds. The application of microneedle patch contributes to the transdermal delivery and the prolonged release of MgH2 that can generate hydrogen (H2) and magnesium ions (Mg2+) after reaction with body fluids. The released H2 reduces the production of ROS, transforming the pathological microenvironment induced by diabetes mellitus. Meanwhile, the released Mg2+ promotes the polarization of pro-healing M2 macrophages. Consequently, cell proliferation and migration are improved, and angiogenesis and tissue regeneration are enhanced. Such intelligent microneedle patch provides a novel way for accelerating wound healing through steadily preserving and releasing of H2 and Mg2+ locally and sustainably.