Hydrogen-Rich Saline Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice Via the Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is efficacious in preventive and therapeutic applications for many disorders because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we determined the effect of HRS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a generally accepted model of the immuno-pathogenic mechanisms underlying MS. We found that HRS reduced the severity of EAE in mice and alleviated inflammation and demyelination. Furthermore, treatment with HRS attenuated oxidative stress in EAE mice. Finally, the results of our study suggest that activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway plays a critical role in the protective effects of HRS in EAE mice.