Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione

Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

Antibacterial effect of electrolysed acid water on the nasal discharge from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

This study was conducted to determine whether electrolysed acid water (EAW) increased the antibacterial effect of irrigating solution used in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). One hundred CRS patients were recruited from April 2008 to February 2009. Four swab specimens were taken from the ipsilateral middle meatus of each patient and one was placed in a Thanswab tube, while the other three were each placed randomly in one of three glass tubes containing either 5 ml of EAW, distilled water or 70% alcohol. They were immediately sent to the laboratory for aerobic and anaerobic cultures. Bacteria grew from 36 specimens when they were placed in a Thanswab tube, from four when placed in a tube with EAW, 30 when placed in distilled water and two when placed in alcohol. The culture rate was significantly lower when the specimens were placed in a tube with EAW as compared with distilled water or in a Thanswab tube, but was not different compared with alcohol. The bacteria that grew from four specimens after first being processed by EAW were all anaerobes. This study showed that EAW exhibited an increased antibacterial effect on bacteria grown from the nasal discharge of CRS patients.

Electrolyzed acid water nasal irrigation after functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Electrolyzed acid water (EAW) has been recognized to have strong bactericidal activity, and the feasibility and safety of EAW irrigation in body cavities has been reported in the literature. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of EAW nasal irrigation on the postoperative care of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who received FESS for treatment were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups at 1 month postoperatively. Patients in group 1 received EAW for nasal irrigation daily for 2 months, those in group 2 received neutral normal saline (NS) daily for 2 months, and those in group 3 did not receive nasal irrigation after surgery. Before and 3 months after FESS, sinonasal symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and patients received endoscopic examination, acoustic rhinometry, smell test, saccharine transit test, and bacterial culture from middle meatus. There were 185 patients enrolled between May 2009 and March 2012. Among the patients who completed the study, 36 received EWA irrigation, 35 received NS irrigation, and 39 (group 3) received no irrigation. Patients with nasal irrigation had a better outcome based on questionnaire score and saccharine transit time. However, there was no difference in outcome between patients who received irrigation with EAW and NS. Our study showed that EWA irrigation did not confer a greater benefit than that of NS irrigation in post-FESS care.

Hydrogen-rich water attenuates amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity through upregulation of Sirt1-FoxO3a by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-N-MC cells

Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are identified in cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous evidence suggests Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is linked to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The accumulation of Aβ-induced ROS leads to increased mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptotic cell death. This suggests antioxidant therapies may be beneficial for preventing ROS-related diseases such as AD. Recently, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been proven effective in treating oxidative stress-induced disorders because of its ROS-scavenging abilities. However, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby HRW prevents neuronal death are still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the putative pathways by which HRW protects against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that HRW directly counteracts oxidative damage by neutralizing excessive ROS, leading to the alleviation of Aβ-induced cell death. In addition, HRW also stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent pathway, which upregulates forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a) downstream antioxidant response and diminishes Aβ-induced mitochondrial potential loss and oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that HRW may have potential therapeutic value to inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen-rich water alleviate ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice

Aim: To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced early fatty liver in mice. Methods: In vitro reduction of hydrogen peroxide by HRW was determined with a chemiluminescence system. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, EtOH, EtOH + silymarin, EtOH + HRW and EtOH + silymarin + HRW. Each group was fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH or isocaloric maltose dextrin (control diet). Silymarin was used as a positive control to compare HRW efficacy against chronic EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. HRW was freshly prepared and given at a dosage of 1.2 mL/mouse trice daily. Blood and liver tissue were collected after chronic-binge liquid-diet feeding for 12 wk. Results: The in vitro study showed that HRW directly scavenged hydrogen peroxide. The in vivo study showed that HRW increased expression of acyl ghrelin, which was correlated with food intake. HRW treatment significantly reduced EtOH-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerol and total cholesterol levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. HRW attenuated malondialdehyde level, restored glutathione depletion and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver. Moreover, HRW reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels but increased IL-10 and IL-22 levels. Conclusion: HRW protects against chronic EtOH-induced liver injury, possibly by inducing acyl ghrelin to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and induce IL-10 and IL-22, thus activating antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress.

Nephroprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity and oxidative damage in mice

Background: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy, but it has serious side effects in clinical treatment, particularly nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on renal injury caused by cisplatin. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group, cisplatin control group, ERW control group and ERW + cisplatin group. Each group comprised 10 animals, which were orally treated with normal saline or ERW daily companion by administration of one dose of cisplatin for 28 days. Animals in the cisplatin group received an intraperitoneal single-dose injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) as a single i.p. dose on the 25th day of the experiment. We determined the hydration state in urine and the level of serum markers of kidney function, the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in kidney and histopathological changes. Results: After administration of ERW, the reduced urinary osmolality was increased and elevated Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels in urine were significantly decreased in cisplatin-induced renal injury mice. Besides, the results demonstrated that significantly decreased elevated serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the levels of TBARS in the kidneys that were induced by cisplatin. Moreover, ERW treatment was also found to markedly increase (p < 0.05) the activities of GPx, GR, CAT and SOD, and to increase GSH content in the kidneys. Histopathology showed that ERW protects against cisplatin-induced renal injury to both the proximal and distal tubules. Conclusion: ERW exhibits potent nephroprotective effects on cisplatin-induced kidney damage in mice, likely due to both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.