Molecular Hydrogen Reduces Electromagnetic Pulse-Induced Male Rat Reproductive System Damage in a Rodent Model

Infertility has got to be a broadly concerned social issue these days, in which the malefactor cannot be overlooked. Numerous studies have shown that electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation may have seriously damaging effects on reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. Molecular hydrogen, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, explains the protective effects against many diseases closely associated with oxidative damage, such as ionizing radiation (IR). We sought to characterize the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen on the male reproductive system in a rodent EMP exposure model. The 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to EMP (peak intensity 1000 kV/m, pulse edge 20 ns, pulse width 200 ns, 1 Hz, and 200 pulses), with or without hydrogen-rich water. The pathological structure of the testis, the rate of apoptosis of the testis, the serum testosterone level, the sperm parameters, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes of the testis were measured. Then, transcriptomic and untargeted metabolomic analyses were applied to uncover the underlying mechanism. Exposure to EMP increased testicular apoptosis rate and apoptosis protein level, decreased sperm viability and motility, decreased serum testosterone levels, and diminished testicular antioxidant capacity. Molecular hydrogen-alleviated damage decreased the testicular apoptosis rate and apoptosis protein level, increased sperm motility, increased serum testosterone levels, and improved antioxidative capacity. Omics results showed that molecular hydrogen has a strong influence on metabolic pathways, and EMP affects mainly oxidative phosphorylation, TNF signaling pathways, and cytokine-receptor interactions. The mechanism of molecular hydrogen’s effect may be related to the reversal of some metabolite levels. These observations warrant molecular hydrogen as an innovative approach for potential protection against EMP.

Abstract 12: HYDROGEN: A NOVEL RADIOPROTECTIVE AGENT

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Hydrogen-rich PBS protects cultured human cells from ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage

Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage, while hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals in vitro. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich PBS may be an effective radioprotective agent in vitro. Compared to cells pretreated without hydrogen, we demonstrated that treating cells with hydrogen-rich PBS before irradiation could significantly inhibit IR-induced apoptosis, increase viability of human intestinal crypt cells, significantly increase endogenous antioxidant, and decrease malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. It is concluded that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.

Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice

Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known carcinogen, however the mechanism of radiation induced thymic lymphoma is not well known. Moreover, an easy and effective method to protect mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma is still unknown. Hydrogen, or H(2), is seldom regarded as an important agent in medical usage, especially as a therapeutic gas. Here in this study, we found that H(2) protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice.

Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates radiation-induced male germ cell loss in mice through reducing hydroxyl radicals

Our recent studies suggest that H2 (hydrogen) has a potential as a novel radioprotector without known toxic side effects. The present study was designed to examine the underlying radioprotective mechanism of H2 and its protective role on irradiated germ cells. Produced by the Fenton reaction and radiolysis of H2O, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were identified as the free radical species that were reduced by H2. We used a H2 microelectrode to dynamically detect H2 concentration in vivo, and found H2 significantly reduced in situ fluorescence intensity of hydroxyphenyl fluorescein; however, as we treated the mice with H2 after irradiation, the decrease is not significant. We found that pre-treatment of H2 to IR (ionizing radiation) significantly suppressed the reaction of •OH and the cellular macromolecules which caused lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and oxidatively damaged DNA. The radioprotective effect of H2 on male germ cells was supported by ameliorated apoptotic findings examined by morphological changes and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) in testicular tissue, and by preserved viability of stem spermatogonia examined for testicular histological parameters, daily sperm production and sperm quality; we used WR-2721 [S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid] as a reference compound. Our results represent the first in vivo evidence in support of a radioprotective role of H2 by neutralizing •OH in irradiated tissue with no side effects.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis

Background: Radiation often causes depletion of immunocytes in tissues and blood, which results in immunosuppression. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown in recent studies to have potential as a safe and effective radioprotective agent through scavenging free radicals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that H2 could protect immunocytes from ionizing radiation (IR). Material/methods: H2 was dissolved in physiological saline or medium using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4′-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe was used to detect intracellular hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and Propidium iodide (PI) staining as well as the caspase 3 activity. Finally, we examined the hematological changes using an automatic Sysmex XE 2100 hematology analyzer. Results: We demonstrated H2-rich medium pretreatment reduced •OH level in AHH-1 cells. We also showed H2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and splenocytes in living mice. Radiation-induced caspase 3 activation was also attenuated by H2 treatment. Finally, we found that H2 rescued the radiation-caused depletion of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT). Conclusions: This study suggests that H2 protected the immune system and alleviated the hematological injury induced by IR.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis in irradiated BALB/c mice

Background: Recent studies show that molecular hydrogen (dihydrogen, H2) has potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent through reducing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H2 is able to protect spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis from radiation-induced injuries. Material/methods: H2 was dissolved in physiological saline using an apparatus produced by our department. -60Co-gamma rays in the irradiation centre were used for irradiation. Spermatid head counts and histological analysis were used to evaluate spermatogenesis. Endogenous hematopoietic spleen colony formation (endoCFUs), bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC) and peripheral blood (PB) leukocytes were used to evaluate hemopoiesis. Results: This study demonstrates that treating mice with H2 before ionizing radiation (IR) can increase the spermatid head count and protect seminiferous epithelium from IR. This study also demonstrates that H2 could significantly increase the number of endoCFUs, BMNC and PB leukocyte. Conclusions: This study suggests that hydrogen-rich saline could partially protect spermatogenesis and hematopoiesis in irradiated mice.

Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Solution on Aplastic Anemia in Vivo

Background: Aplasitc anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by an immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Though clinical symptoms could be ameliorated by bone marrow transplantation and/or immunosuppressive therapy, frequent recurrence and especially evolution of clonal hematologic diseases remains problematic clinically. Cytokines such as interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by autologous T cells are closely related with the development of AA. Hydrogen-rich solution was reported to inhibit the levels of cytokines including INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in vivo in recent studies. This study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich solution on AA in vivo. Methods: AA model was determined in vivo by mice and body weights of the mice were used as the basic physiological index. Peripheral blood cells were calculated to evaluate the hematologic recovery degree. Bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs), tissue histology, as well as CFU-S and CFU-GM forming units were used to evaluate the recovery of bone marrow microenvironment. The ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were examined along with cytokine levels in serum to determine the efficacy of H2-rich solution on the affected immunological functions. Results: Body weight and number of peripheral blood cells were significantly improved for mice in the H2-rich solution treated groups as compared with those with AA. The number of BMNCs and CFUs increased markedly and the bone marrow microenvironment was also improved significantly. The experimental group restrained the cell apoptosis, relieved hyperemia and accelerated tissue repair. The number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells as well as the ratio of CD4/CD8 increased to normal gradually, while the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in serum decreased after H2-rich solution treatment. Conclusion: Our study firstly showed that hydrogen-rich solution accelerated the recovery of either hematological or immunological recovery on aplastic anemia mice. This finding suggests hydrogen-rich solution as a potential clinical therapeutic agent for AA. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Molecular hydrogen protects human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells against 12C6+ heavy ion radiation

Purpose: To investigate the potential protective role of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) against (12)C(6+) heavy ion radiation, which is a major hazard for space travel and has been also widely used in heavy ion radiotherapy. Materials and methods: H(2) was dissolved in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium under high pressure (0.4 Mpa) to a saturated level by using an apparatus produced by our department. A 2-[6-(4′-hydroxy) phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoate (HPF) probe and a 2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFH-DA) fluorescent dye were used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Cell apoptosis were determined by double-staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) as well as a Hoechst 33342 staining method alternatively. Subsequently, cell cycle analysis was performed using a PI staining method and the expression of apoptotic protein was examined by Western blot. Results: In this study, we demonstrated H(2) reduced ROS level in Human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells as well as in the radiolysis of water. Our data also showed H(2) attenuated (12)C(6+) radiation- induced cell apoptosis and also alleviated radiation-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Heavy ion radiation-induced Caspase 3 activation was also inhibited by H(2) treatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, these data showed that H(2) attenuated (12)C(6+) radiation-induced cell apoptosis through reducing the ROS level and modulating apoptotic molecules, thus indicating the potential of H(2) as a safe and effective radioprotectant.

Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against γ-ray irradiation injury in HK-2 cells

Objective To investigate the protective effects and mechanism of Hydrogen-rich saline against γ irradiation-induced injury in HK-2 cells. Methods HK-2 cells were separated into 4 groups: the contral group, the Hydrogen-treated group, the irradiated group, the irradiated Hydrogen-treated group. The Hydrogen-treated group and the irradiated Hydrogen-treated group were pretreated with Hydrogen-rich solution 10minutes before γ-irradiation of both the irradiated group and the irradiated Hydrogen-treated group at the dose of 6Gy. The apoptosis rates of the HK-2 cells were observed by Flow Cytometry24 hours after irradiation while the survival were examined through the clonogenic assay every 24 hours until the 10th day The malondialdehyde (MDA) and the Hydroxyl radicals(• OH) were examined immediately after γ-ray irradiation. Results Hydrogen-rich salineincreased the survival of HK-2 cells at the 10th day after irradiation of 6Gy (P <0.05), and the apoptosis rates of the HK-2 cells significantly decreased (P<0.01); Hydrogen-rich salinereduced MDA level (P <0.05)as well as • OH level in HK-2 cells. Conclusion Hydrogen-rich saline exert protective effect against γ-irradiation-induced injury in HK-2 cells. © 2014, Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved.