Treatment with hydrogen molecule attenuates cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

Introduction: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, a disorder of the heart muscle in diabetic patients, is one of the major causes of heart failure. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen molecule on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult male mice by consecutive peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. Then, they were treated with hydrogen water (1.3±0.2 mg/l) for 8 weeks (four groups, n=83-88 in each group). Results: Although treatment of diabetic mice with hydrogen water did not significantly affect blood glucose level, it significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and reduced expression of atrial natriuretic factor and β-myosin heavy chain; it alleviated cardiac fibrosis and reduced expression of collagen I and III, transforming growth factor beta, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and osteopontin; it reduced cardiac caspase-3 activity and ratio of bax/bcl-2. Importantly, hydrogen water treatment improved cardiac function in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Furthermore, it was found that hydrogen water treatment abated oxidative stress, suppressed inflammation, and attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hearts of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. In addition, hydrogen water treatment suppressed activation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and nuclear factor κB signaling in the hearts of streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Conclusion: Treatment with hydrogen molecule attenuated cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, which was independent of glycemic control. Summary: Treatment with hydrogen molecule attenuated cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Molecular hydrogen could thus be envisaged as a nutritional countermeasure for diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Effects of Molecular Hydrogen on Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity and Spatial Memory Impairment

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive stimulant, and METH exposure can induce irreversible neuronal damage and cause neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. The ever-increasing levels of METH abuse worldwide have necessitated the identification of effective intervention strategies to protect the brain against METH-induced neurotoxicity. The protective effects of molecular hydrogen on oxidative stress and related neurodegenerative diseases have been recently elucidated. Herein, we investigated whether treatment with molecular hydrogen ameliorated the METH-induced neurotoxicity and spatial learning and memory impairments. Male C57BL/6 mice received four intraperitoneal METH injections (10 mg/kg, 3-h interval), and stereotypic behaviors and hyperthermia were observed. After METH treatment and behavioral observation, the mice were returned to their home cages, where they received water or hydrogen-rich water (HRW) ad libitum for 7 days. We found that the molecular hydrogen delivered by ad libitum HRW consumption significantly inhibited the METH-induced spatial learning impairment and memory loss evidenced in the Barnes maze and Morris water maze tests. Furthermore, molecular hydrogen significantly restrained the neuronal damage in the hippocampus after high-dose METH exposure. Ad libitum HRW consumption also had an inhibitory effect on the METH-induced increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, glucose-related protein 78 (GRP 78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and p-NF-kB p65 expression and elevation of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the hippocampus. These are the first findings to indicate that hydrogen might ameliorate METH-induced neurotoxicity and has a potential application in reducing the risk of neurodegeneration frequently observed in METH abusers.

Molecular hydrogen attenuates methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and activation of ERK-ΔFosB signaling in the mouse nucleus accumbens

Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the most prevalently used illegal psychostimulants in many countries. Continuous exposure to METH leads to behavioral sensitization in animals, which can be used as a behavioral model with many mechanisms in common with relapse in humans. Molecular hydrogen has recently gained attention for its potential as a novel healthcare product with preventive and therapeutic applicability to a wide range of pathological conditions. However, it remains unclear whether and, if so, how hydrogen regulates METH-induced behavioral abnormalities. In the present study, we investigated the roles of molecular hydrogen on the acquisition and transfer of METH-induced behavioral sensitization and the accompanying changes in ERK phosphorylation and ΔFosB activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice. To this end, male C57BL/6 mice received METH (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) injections for 7 days followed by a METH challenge (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) after a 7-day transfer period. Molecular hydrogen, delivered through a hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) injection (10 mL/kg, i.p., 3-h interval), was administered during the acquisition and transfer periods. We found that HRS administration was able to inhibit the acquisition and transfer of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg METH-induced behavioral sensitization to a certain extent, thereby attenuating the expression of behavioral sensitization. The HRS injections alone did not induce any obvious changes in locomotor activity in mice. Intriguingly, the increases in pERK and ΔFosB in the NAc, which accompanied the METH-induced behavioral sensitization, were also attenuated by the HRS treatments. Due to the anti-oxidative function of molecular hydrogen, the HRS injections reduced METH-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde generation in the NAc. These results suggest that molecular hydrogen serves as an anti-oxidative agent with potentially therapeutic applicability to the treatment of METH addicts.