The improvement of insulin level after hydrogen-rich water therapy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Background and aim: Water plays a pivotal role in the body. Alteration of the fluid balance promotes metabolic disorder, thus leading to the development of various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Hydrogen-rich water (HW) is recognized as a novel antioxidant. This study aimed to investigate the role of HW on insulin, insulin receptor (IRs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Normal (N), DM rats, DM+metformin (DM+Met, 45 mg/kg body weight [BW]), DM+Met+HW, and DM+HW. DM rats were induced by feeding them a high-fat diet for 30 days and then injecting with repeated low doses of STZ (35 mg/kg BW) intraperitoneally. Fresh HW was administered orally and ad libitum for 14 days. Insulin, IRs, and SOD were observed in each group. Results: HW therapy increased the level and expression of insulin and IRs. In addition, treatment with HW also elevated the SOD levels in the serum and liver. The study results indicated no significant differences between the administration of HW and metformin. Conclusion: HW has antioxidant activity in STZ-induced DM rats, increasing insulin, IRs, and SOD.

Hydrogen water therapy in histopathological improvement of diabetic nephropathy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a renal microvascular abnormality resulting from chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The main cause of DN is a chronic condition of hyperglycemia which induces oxidative stress in the microvascular system and causes progressive renal failure. Hydrogen water (HW) shows potential in reducing ROS, and anti-inflammatory. This study aims to develop HW therapy in the improvement of renal histopathology in streptozotocin-induced DM rats. DM induction in rats with a HFD for four weeks then injected with STZ (35 mg/kg BW) intraperitonially. DM rats were divided into 4 groups: DM; DM+Met (DM+metformin dose 45 mg/kg BW); DM+HW; and DM+Met+HW (DM+combination of metformin and HW). Rats were treated with HW or metformin for fourteen days and given orally per day. At the end of the treatment, rats were dissected, and the kidneys were collected. Renal histopathological improvement was evaluated by scoring the H&E-stained kidney sections, then analyzed using ANOVA (p < 0.05). The results showed that HW therapy and a combination of HW with metformin were able to significantly improve renal microvascular damage (p < 0.05) compared to the DM rat group. Hydrogen water has the potential to treat DM chronic complications through renal microvascular repair in STZ-induced diabetic rats.