Effect of mineral-induced alkaline reduced water on sprague-dawley rats fed on high-fat diet

Mineral-induced alkaline-reduced water (MRW) is generated by the chemical reaction of water with alkaline earth metals and characterized by high pH and low oxidation-reduction potential. As ROS are believed to have a role in the pathogenesis of obesity, we attempted to determine the effect of MRW on obesity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed on a high-fat diet. The body weight of the MRW group was significantly lower than that of the control group in most periods of the examination (P<0.05). Serum level of triglycerides (P<0.05) and fat deposition in the livers of the MRW group were found to have been significantly reduced. This suggests that MRW down-regulates lipid metabolism, thereby suppressing obesity. Possible mechanisms of MRW related to reactive oxygen species were also discussed. Our results suggest that MRW is effective in the alleviation of obesity in SD rats fed on high-fat diet.

Effects of Electrolyzed Alkaline Reduced Water on Echinostoma hortense Infection and Immune Response in C57BL/6 Mice

To examine the effect of the electrolyzed alkaline reduced water (ERW) on animal immunity, by employing Echinostoma hortense that is a parasite in the small intestine, the immune response of C57BL/6 was examined. To C57BL/6 mice, Echinostoma hortense metacercaria 15 per animal was in oculate dorsally, the worm was collected after 2 weeks, and the change of goblet cells and mast cells in the mucosa of small intestine was examined, and by using a protein chip, the change of cytokines in the serum was compared and observed. As a result, average 8.3 worms were collected from the C57BL/6 mice infected with E. hortense, and in the group fed with the ERW, average 10 worms were collected. In regard to the examination of the change of goblet cells, in the experimental group infected with E. hortense and fed with the ERW, average 4.3 worms per villus were detected, hence, it was found that the expression of goblet cells was low (p<0.001). Regarding the examination of the change of mast cells, similarly, in the group infected with E. hortense and fed with the ERW, average 11 worms per villus were detected, and it appears to be less than control group (p<0.001). Regarding the expression of cytokines in mouse serum, in comparison of the experiment group infected with E. hortense and control group, in the expression of the Th1 cytokines IL-6, IL-$1{beta}$, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, a significant difference was not detected. In our study, it was found that in the infection of E. hortense, the ERW mediates its effect on the number of goblet cells and mast cells in the intestinal mucosa, and simultaneously, the worm expulsion was delayed, and thus the conclusion that the ERW mediated its effect on the intestinal immunity of mice was obtained.

The Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water on Blood and Organ Tissues of Mice

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on blood components and electrolytes, as well as elected tissues on mice. The mice were supplied either tap water (control group) and ERW (experimental group) for two months. There were no significant different between two groups anatomically and physiologically. In the blood electrolyte study, the experimental group had less Na and BUN compared to the control group. In the blood component study, the experimental group had less neutrophiles and the control group had more lymphocytes. In histological study, no tissue changes were noticed in various organs, including the stomach, small intestine, heart, and liver tissues. In conclusion, ERW has no noticable side affects on blood and organ tissues, and might be safe to a living body.

Electrolyzed-reduced water inhibits acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats

Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERW-treated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.

The immunological effects of electrolyzed reduced water on the Echinostoma hortense infection in C57BL/6 mice

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is widely used for drinking by people in Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine the immunological effect of ERW on the immunity of animals by supplying ERW to C57BL/6 mice infected with Echinostoma hortense metacercariae. In the non-infected groups, interleukin (IL)-4 (p < 0.001), IL-5, IL-10, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) A expression of the group fed ERW (ERW group) increased in small intestine compared with the normal control group. In the case of infected groups, the group fed ERW (ERW+E. hortense group) showed the result that IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and Ig A expression increased, but IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) decreased, and the number of goblet cells (p < 0.001) and helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) positive cells increased compared with the group without feeding ERW. However, adult worm recovery rate was markedly increased (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the expression of all the cytokines except IL-10 in spleen was mildly increased but not significant statistically, and there was no significant difference in the numerical changes of white blood cell (WBC). These results indicate that feeding ERW may have influence on the local immune response (Th-1 type cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) in the small intestine but not on the systemic immune response.

Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERW in UVB-induced skin injury.

The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice

Our hypothesis is that the intake of functional water, electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) can excrete melamine in body was evoked by melamine-tainted feed (MTF). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of ERW in MTF-mice model by way of body weight gain, incidence of urinary crystals and bladder stone, biochemical and haematological examination, histopathologic finding of kidney and urinary bladder, and the evaluation of bladder stone. We found that the rate of body weight gain was significantly more increased in MTF+ERW group than MTF+PW group. Accordingly, the number of immunocytes such as leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte as well as the mean weight of spleen was significantly increased in MTF+ERW group. The incidence of urinary crystals was significantly higher in MTF+ERW group, whereas the incidence of urinary bladder stones was lower in MTF+ERW group (52.4%) than in MTF+PW group (38.1%). Also, urinary crystals were more precipitated in MTF+ERW group than MTF+PW group, and urinary bladder stone consists of 100% melamine. Collectively, our data clearly show that ERW intake is helpful to excrete of melamine in MTF mice model and this is the first report on the melamine excretion and clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for melamine-intoxicated hosts.

The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice

Exposure to UVB radiation induced skin damage that results to increase risk of skin cancer. Despite the clinical importance of skin-induced damage, antioxidants imposed limited therapeutic success. Hydrogen molecule (H2) has been known as a safe antioxidant in the prevention and therapeutic approach towards several diseases. Drinking hydrogen reduced water (HRW), inhalation of hydrogen gas, and injecting H2-dissolved saline are widely accepted to incorporate H2 in the body. However, there is no document about the beneficial effect of hydrogen water bath. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen bathing on the UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. For this, mice of the bathing group are allowed to freely swim on HRW, and let the HRW penetrate for 60 mins. Scoring of skin injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) enzyme activity quantification, cytokine analysis, and ultrastructural change of corneocytes were measured after exposure to UVB radiation of 360–540 mJ/cm2. In summary, the bathing with HRW significantly reduced the levels of skin damage, as well as increased activity of glutathione peroxidase. Further, the effect of HRW on cytokine network in the skin after UVB exposure revealed that HRW significantly decreased the level of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, scanning electron microscopy data revealed low number of defected corneocytes and ultrastructural changes, suggesting that HRW bathing would protect UV-induced cell damage.

The Antioxidative Effect of Hydrogen Water Drinking in Blood

To confirm the antioxidative effect of hydrogen water drinking, the participants were divided into two groups, purified water (PW) drinking group (n=20) and hydrogen water (HW) drinking group (n=20) because of cross test in each 10 in a group. Purified water (pH 6.9, +432mV) was produced only by physical filtering using commercial carbon filter, and hydrogen water (Few Hydrogen Rich WaterTM, Hayannamoo Beverage Co., Ltd., Korea) was used in this experiment (pH 7.5, -650mV, hydrogen 1.5ppm). Fifty uL of blood was collected before drinking water, at 1 and 2 minutes after drinking 12mL/kg. ROS in blood was examined using FORT test kit. ROS was showed lower tendency in HW group than PW group after drinking, and especially lowest tendency in a minute (p<0.01) and 5 minutes (p<0.05). But, there is no the antioxidative effect in purified water. Consequentially, drinking hydrogen water is useful to remove free radicals, ROS.

Effect of Hydrogen Water Drinking on Dementia Patient through Mechanism of Oxidative Stress and Immune Redox Balance

Hydrogen water (HW) which is produced by electrolysis of water has characteristics of extremely low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value and high dissolved hydrogen (DH). It has been proved to have various beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, HW effect on dementia that is associated with cognitive impairment and memory loss, is poorly documented. In the present study, we investigated the drinking effects of hydrogen water on dementia patient for prevention through oxidative stress and immuno redox mechanism. Dementia patients were administered with HW and purified water (PW) for 6 months. Further, we evaluated hydrogen water effect on the cognitive impairment by checking the serum concentration of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers [Amyloid β (Aβ) 40, Aβ 42 and tau], inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4, Th1/Th2 cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12p70 and IL-5, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) levels. We found that HW treatment significantly decreased the serum level of Aβ 40 after 6 mon of treatment. In parallel, inflammatory cytokines were significantly inhibited in experimental group compared to control group. In line, Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly decreased in HW than PW group. Furthermore, oxidative stress markers such as ROS and nitric oxide level were decreased in HW treated group than PW control group. Overall our clinical results strongly recommended that drinking hydrogen water might be a promising preventative approach for age-related neurodegenerative disease like dementia and have an enormous impact on future healthcare for the elderly patients. This might be the first note on the clinical application of drinking HW on the serum of dementia patients.