Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione

Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

Nephroprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity and oxidative damage in mice

Background: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy, but it has serious side effects in clinical treatment, particularly nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on renal injury caused by cisplatin. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group, cisplatin control group, ERW control group and ERW + cisplatin group. Each group comprised 10 animals, which were orally treated with normal saline or ERW daily companion by administration of one dose of cisplatin for 28 days. Animals in the cisplatin group received an intraperitoneal single-dose injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) as a single i.p. dose on the 25th day of the experiment. We determined the hydration state in urine and the level of serum markers of kidney function, the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in kidney and histopathological changes. Results: After administration of ERW, the reduced urinary osmolality was increased and elevated Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels in urine were significantly decreased in cisplatin-induced renal injury mice. Besides, the results demonstrated that significantly decreased elevated serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the levels of TBARS in the kidneys that were induced by cisplatin. Moreover, ERW treatment was also found to markedly increase (p < 0.05) the activities of GPx, GR, CAT and SOD, and to increase GSH content in the kidneys. Histopathology showed that ERW protects against cisplatin-induced renal injury to both the proximal and distal tubules. Conclusion: ERW exhibits potent nephroprotective effects on cisplatin-induced kidney damage in mice, likely due to both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.