It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H₂O₂-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H₂O₂ on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a clinical condition characterized by reflux of gastroduodenal contents in the oesophagus, has proved to demonstrate a strong link between oxidative stress and the development of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been universally accepted as first-line therapy for management of GERD. The potential benefits of electrolysed reduced water (ERW), rich in molecular hydrogen, in improving symptoms and systemic oxidative stress associated with GERD was assessed. The study was performed on 84 GERD patients undergoing control treatment (PPI + tap water) or experimental treatment (PPI + ERW) for 3 months. These patients were subjected to the GERD-Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire as well as derivatives reactive oxigen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde assays, which were all performed as a proxy for the oxidative/nitrosative stress and the antioxidant potential status. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between scores and laboratory parameters. Overall results demonstrated that an optimal oxidative balance can be restored and GERD symptoms can be reduced rapidly via the integration of ERW in GERD patients. The relative variation of heartburn and regurgitation score was significantly correlated with laboratory parameters. Thus, in the selected patients, combination treatment with PPI and ERW improves the cellular redox state leading to the improvement of the quality of life as demonstrated by the correlation analysis between laboratory parameters and GERD symptoms.