Ameliorating Role of Hydrogen-Rich Water Against NSAID-Induced Enteropathy via Reduction of ROS and Production of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy, the mechanism of which is involved in oxidative stress, can be lethal due to hemorrhage. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), in terms of oxidative stress, on intestinal mucosal damage as well as changes in the gut microbiome and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content in feces. Methods: Hydrogen-rich water was orally administered for 5 days to investigate the effectiveness of indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice. Small intestinal damage and luminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated to investigate the ameliorating effects of hydrogen. Then, components of the gut microbiome were analyzed; fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed using the cecal contents obtained from mice drinking HRW. The cecal contents were analyzed for the SCFAs content. Finally, cells from the macrophage cell line RAW264 were co-cultured with the supernatants of cecal contents. Results: Hydrogen-rich water significantly ameliorated IND-induced enteropathy histologically and reduced the expression of IND-induced inflammatory cytokines. Microscopic evaluation revealed that luminal ROS was significantly reduced and that HRW did not change the gut microbiota; however, FMT from HRW-treated animals ameliorated IND-induced enteropathy. The SCFA content in the cecal contents of HRW-treated animals was significantly higher than that in control animals. The supernatant had significantly increased interleukin-10 expression in RAW264 cells in vitro. Conclusion: Hydrogen-rich water ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy, not only via direct antioxidant effects but also via anti-inflammatory effects by increasing luminal SCFAs. These results suggest that hydrogen may have therapeutic potential in small intestinal inflammatory diseases. Keywords: Antioxidants; Hydrogen; IL-10; NSAIDs-induced enteropathy; Short-chain fatty acids.