Pharmacokinetics of hydrogen after ingesting a hydrogen-rich solution: A study in pigs

Drinking hydrogen (H2)-rich water is a common way to consume H2. Although many studies have shown efficacy of drinking H2-rich water in neuropsychiatric and endocrine metabolic disorders, their authenticity has been questioned because none examined the associated pharmacokinetics of H2. Therefore, we performed the first study to investigate the pharmacokinetics of H2 in pigs given an H2-rich glucose solution with the aim to extrapolate the findings to humans. We inserted blood collection catheters into the jejunal and portal veins, suprahepatic inferior vena cava, and carotid artery of 4 female pigs aged 8 weeks. Then, within 2 min we infused 500 ml of either H2-rich or H2-free glucose solution into the jejunum via a percutaneous gastrostomy tube and measured changes in H2 concentration in venous and arterial blood over 120 min. After infusion of the H2-rich glucose solution, H2 concentration in the portal vein peaked at 0.05 mg/L and remained at more than 0.016 mg/L (H2 saturation level, 1%) after 1 h; it also increased after infusion of H2-free glucose solution but remained below 0.001 mg/L (H2 saturation level, 0.06%). We assume that H2 was subsequently metabolized in the liver or eliminated via the lungs because it was not detected in the carotid artery. In conclusion, drinking highly concentrated H2-rich solution within a short time is a good way to increase H2 concentration in portal blood and supply H2 to the liver.

Pharmacokinetics of a single inhalation of hydrogen gas in pigs

The benefits of inhaling hydrogen gas (H2) have been widely reported but its pharmacokinetics have not yet been sufficiently analyzed. We developed a new experimental system in pigs to closely evaluate the process by which H2 is absorbed in the lungs, enters the bloodstream, and is distributed, metabolized, and excreted. We inserted and secured catheters into the carotid artery (CA), portal vein (PV), and supra-hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) to allow repeated blood sampling and performed bilateral thoracotomy to collapse the lungs. Then, using a hydrogen-absorbing alloy canister, we filled the lungs to the maximum inspiratory level with 100% H2. The pig was maintained for 30 seconds without resuming breathing, as if they were holding their breath. We collected blood from the three intravascular catheters after 0, 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes and measured H2 concentration by gas chromatography. H2 concentration in the CA peaked immediately after breath holding; 3 min later, it dropped to 1/40 of the peak value. Peak H2 concentrations in the PV and IVC were 40% and 14% of that in the CA, respectively. However, H2 concentration decay in the PV and IVC (half-life: 310 s and 350 s, respectively) was slower than in the CA (half-life: 92 s). At 10 min, H2 concentration was significantly higher in venous blood than in arterial blood. At 60 min, H2 was detected in the portal blood at a concentration of 6.9-53 nL/mL higher than at steady state, and in the SVC 14-29 nL/mL higher than at steady state. In contrast, H2 concentration in the CA decreased to steady state levels. This is the first report showing that inhaled H2 is transported to the whole body by advection diffusion and metabolized dynamically.