Hydrogen water ameliorates the severity of atopic dermatitis-like lesions and decreases interleukin-1β, interleukin-33, and mast cell infiltration in NC/Nga mice

Objectives: To examine the effect of hydrogen water (HW) on the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Methods: For this experimental study between March 2015 and December 2015, NC/Nga mice characterized by mild AD severity were given either HW (n=11) or purified water (PW) (n=9) ad libitum; specific-pathogen-free mice (n=9) were used as AD-free control. Atopic dermatitis severity score and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were examined at baseline (0 week), and after 4 weeks of HW/PW treatment. Levels of serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and cytokines in the AD lesion were measured by ELISA; and mRNA expression of TARC and aquaporin (AQP-3) genes in the skin was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mice treated with HW for 4 weeks demonstrated a significant decrease in the AD severity score compared with PW-treated mice (p less than 0.01). Hydrogen water administration also significantly reduced TEWL and serum TARC levels (p less than 0.01), infiltration of mast cells (p less than 0.05), and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-33 (p less than 0.05) in skin lesions compared with PW. However, no difference was observed between PW and HW groups in interferon-γ secretion and expression of AQP-3 and TARC genes. Conclusion: Hydrogen water suppressed inflammation in AD mice, leading to amelioration of disease severity, which suggests the therapeutic potential of HW in AD treatment.