Hydrogen gas inhalation ameliorates cardiac remodelling and fibrosis by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome in myocardial infarction rats

It is noteworthy that prolonged cardiac structural changes and excessive fibrosis caused by myocardial infarction (MI) seriously interfere with the treatment of heart failure in clinical practice. Currently, there are no effective and practical means of either prevention or treatment. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are critical for the long-term quality of life of individuals with myocardial ischaemia. Herein, we aimed to explore the protective effect of H2 , a novel gas signal molecule with anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects, on cardiac remodelling and fibrosis in MI rats, and to explore its possible mechanism. First, we successfully established MI model rats, which were then exposed to H2 inhalation with 2% concentration for 28 days (3 hours/day). The results showed that hydrogen gas can significantly improve cardiac function and reduce the area of cardiac fibrosis. In vitro experiments further proved that H2 can reduce the hypoxia-induced damage to cardiomyocytes and alleviate angiotensin II-induced migration and activation of cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, herein, we illustrated for the first time that inhalation of H2 ameliorates myocardial infarction-induced cardiac remodelling and fibrosis in MI rats and exert its protective effect mainly through inhibiting NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis.