Hydrogen-rich water reduces cell damage by reducing excessive autophagy in mouse neuronal cells after oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation

Objective: To investigate whether hydrogen-rich water exerts a protective effect against cellular injury by affecting the level of autophagy after oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22 cells). Methods: HT22 cells in logarithmic growth phase were cultured in vitro. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay to find the optimal concentration of Na2S2O4. HT22 cells were divided into control group (NC group), OGD/R group (sugar-free medium+10 mmol/L Na2S2O4 treated for 90 minutes and then changed to normal medium for 4 hours) and hydrogen-rich water treatment group (HW group, sugar-free medium+10 mmol/L Na2S2O4 treated for 90 minutes and then changed to medium containing hydrogen-rich water for 4 hours). The morphology of HT22 cells was observed by inverted microscopy; cell activity was detected by CCK-8 method; cell ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 was detected by immunofluorescence; the protein expression of LC3II/I and Beclin-1, markers of cellular autophagy, was detected by Western blotting. Results: Inverted microscopy showed that compared with the NC group, the OGD/R group had poor cell status, swollen cytosol, visible cell lysis fragments and significantly lower cell activity [(49.1±2.7)% vs. (100.0±9.7)%, P < 0.01]; compared with the OGD/R group, the HW group had improved cell status and remarkably higher cell activity [(63.3±1.8)% vs. (49.1±2.7)%, P < 0.01]. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the neuronal nuclear membrane of cells in the OGD/R group was lysed and a higher number of autophagic lysosomes were visible compared with the NC group; compared with the OGD/R group, the neuronal damage of cells in the HW group was reduced and the number of autophagic lysosomes was notably decreased. The results of immunofluorescence assay showed that the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were outstandingly enhanced in the OGD/R group compared with the NC group, and the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were markedly weakened in the HW group compared with the OGD/R group. Western blotting assay showed that the expressions were prominently higher in both LC3II/I and Beclin-1 in the OGD/R group compared with the NC group (LC3II/I: 1.44±0.05 vs. 0.37±0.03, Beclin-1/β-actin: 1.00±0.02 vs. 0.64±0.01, both P < 0.01); compared with the OGD/R group, the protein expression of both LC3II/I and Beclin-1 in the HW group cells were notably lower (LC3II/I: 0.54±0.02 vs. 1.44±0.05, Beclin-1/β-actin: 0.83±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.02, both P < 0.01). Conclusions: Hydrogen-rich water has a significant protective effect on OGD/R-causing HT22 cell injury, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of autophagy.

Effect and mechanism of hydrogen-rich bath on mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasis

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hydrogen-rich bath has therapeutic effect on psoriasis and its molecular mechanism. Mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasis were established and divided into groups. The mice were respectively treated with hydrogen-rich water bath and distilled water bath. The changes of skin lesions and PSI scores of mice were compared after their treatments. HE staining was used to observe the pathological feature. The changes of inflammatory indexes and immune factors were analysed by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured by the thiobarbituric assay (TBA) method. By naked eye, the severity of skin lesions in hydrogen-rich water bath group was lower than that in distilled water bath group, and the psoriasis severity index (PSI) was lower (p < 0.01). The results of HE staining showed that the mice with distilled water bath had more abnormal keratosis, thickening of the spinous layer and prolongation of the dermal process, and more Munro abscess than the mice with hydrogen-rich water bath. During the course of disease, the overall levels and peaks of IL-17, IL-23, TNF-α, CD3+ and MDA in mice with hydrogen-rich bath were lower than those in mice with distilled water bath (p < 0.05). In the skin, the mice treated with the hydrogen-rich water bath also had lower peak of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels. It is concluded that hydrogen-rich water bath can inhibit psoriasis inflammation and oxidative stress, relieve psoriasis skin lesions and accelerate the end of abnormal skin proliferation state, which shows a therapeutic and improving effect on psoriasis.

Hydrogen Protection Boosts the Bioactivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium Extract in Preventing Palmitate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Restoring MFN2 and Alleviating Oxidative Stress in HAEC Cells

As the most important natural antioxidants in plant extracts, polyphenols demonstrate versatile bioactivities and are susceptible to oxidation. The commonly used ultrasonic extraction often causes oxidation reactions involving the formation of free radicals. To minimize the oxidation effects during the ultrasonic extraction process, we designed a hydrogen (H2)-protected ultrasonic extraction method and used it in Chrysanthemum morifolium extraction. Hydrogen-protected extraction improved the total antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and polyphenol content of Chrysanthemum morifolium water extract (CME) compared with air and nitrogen (N2) conditions. We further investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of CME on palmitate (PA)-induced endothelial dysfunction in human aorta endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that hydrogen-protected CME (H2-CME) best-prevented impairment in nitric oxide (NO) production, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein level, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, H2-CME prevented PA-induced endothelial dysfunction by restoring mitofusin-2 (MFN2) levels and maintaining redox balance.

Assessment of the effects of hydrogen water on human gingival fibroblast cell culture in patients with chronic periodontitis

Background: Activated inflammatory cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to eliminate pathogens. Under normal conditions, the pathogens are taken care of, and tissues are repaired. However, in periodontal disease, persistent inflammation causes increased ROS release and impaired healing. Therefore, removal of overproduced ROS using antioxidants is necessary. Hydrogen water has an antioxidative effect on cells and impedes oxidative stress-related disorders. Aim: To study the effect of hydrogen water on cell viability, migration, and its antioxidative potential in fibroblasts obtained from chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods: The gingival tissue samples were obtained from 26 subjects (13 periodontally healthy individuals and 13 chronic periodontitis patients) and processed. The human gingival fibroblasts were cultured and the assays were commenced once adequate growth was detected. The effect of hydrogen water on cell viability was checked by neutral red assay, while the migration potential was assessed by transwell migration assay. The antioxidative potential of hydrogen water was evaluated by CUPRAC assay. Statistical analysis: Intergroup comparison was done using Mann-Whitney U-test. Intragroup comparison was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Hydrogen water was nontoxic to the fibroblasts at 24 h and 48 h. The intergroup comparison of the cell viability between hydrogen water-treated periodontally healthy gingival fibroblasts (HF) and fibroblasts from patients with chronic periodontitis (CF) showed a statistically significant (P = 0.00) difference at 24 h and 48 h. Hydrogen water also positively influenced the migratory capacity. Hydrogen water-treated fibroblasts obtained from chronic periodontitis patients showed more migration in comparison to the healthy group (P = 0.00). Hydrogen water showed an antioxidative potential. The maximum potential was seen in relation to the fibroblasts obtained from chronic periodontitis patients at 48 h. Conclusion: Hydrogen water was nontoxic, increased the migratory capacity, and showed an antioxidative potential on human fibroblasts obtained from periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis.

Combination of Cold Storage in a Heavy Water-Containing Solution and Post-Reperfusion Hydrogen Gas Treatment Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat Livers

We previously reported the efficacy of cold storage (CS) using a heavy water-containing solution (Dsol) and post-reperfusion hydrogen gas treatment separately. This study aimed to clarify the combined effects of these treatments. Rat livers were subjected to 48-hour CS and a subsequent 90-minute reperfusion in an isolated perfused rat liver system. The experimental groups were the immediately reperfused control group (CT), the CS with University of Wisconsin solution (UW) group, the CS with Dsol group, the CS with UW and post-reperfusion H2 treatment group (UW-H2), and the CS with Dsol and post-reperfusion H2 group (Dsol-H2). We first compared the Dsol-H2, UW, and CT groups to evaluate this alternative method to conventional CS. The protective potential of the Dsol-H2 group was superior to that of the UW group, as evidenced by lower portal venous resistance and lactate dehydrogenase leakage, a higher oxygen consumption rate, and increased bile production. Multiple comparison tests among the UW, Dsol, UW-H2, and Dsol-H2 groups revealed that both treatments, during CS and after reperfusion, conferred a similar extent of protection and showed additive effects in combination therapy. Furthermore, the variance in all treatment groups appeared smaller than that in the no-treatment or no-stress groups, with excellent reproducibility. In conclusion, combination therapy with Dsol during CS and hydrogen gas after reperfusion additively protects against graft injury.

Molecular Hydrogen Prevents Osteoclast Activation in a Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Zebrafish Scale Model

Antioxidants represent a powerful tool for many human diseases and, in particular, molecular hydrogen has unique characteristics that make it a very promising therapeutic agent against osteoporosis. Zebrafish scales offer an innovative model in which new therapeutic approaches against secondary osteoporosis are tested. Scale bone loss obtained by prednisolone (PN) treatment is characterized by increased osteoclast activity and decreased osteoblast activity highlighted with bone enzymatic assays. We used this read-out system to test the therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), an innovative antioxidant approach. HRW prevented osteoclast activation and bone loss in PN-treated fish scales, as verified by both biochemical and histochemical tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase assays. On the other hand, HRW treatment did not prevent PN-dependent osteoblast suppression, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity. Moreover, HRW treatment did not facilitate the reparation of resorption lacunae induced in scales by PN. Our study highlighted a specific effect of HRW on adult osteoclast activity but not in osteoblasts, introducing an intriguing new antioxidant preventive approach against osteoporosis.

Enhanced Removal of Free Radicals by Aqueous Hydrogen Nanobubbles and Their Role in Oxidative Stress

Elevated levels of reactive oxygen radicals caused by environmental stress are the key triggers of inflammation, aging, and disease; thus, it is critical to develop novel reactive oxygen radical scavenging methods with high efficiency and low toxicity. As a result of their selective reactive oxygen radical removal, hydrogen molecules are strong candidates, but their application is limited by the small hydrogen supply and short duration of action. In this study, we for the first time combined nanobubble (NB) technology and hydrogen water to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) using copper ions as a representative environmental pollutant and Tetrahymena thermophila as a model organism. Hydrogen NBs displayed a remarkable capability of removing H2O2 and O2•- at molar ratios of 8:1 and 240:1, respectively, which were unable to be removed by dissolved hydrogen molecules only. During the oxidative defense phase, hydrogen NB water either directly removed ROS or increased the activity and relative expression of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). During the oxidative inhibition phase, hydrogen NB water exerted antioxidant effects mainly by increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH-Px as well as the expression of the corresponding genes. Our results provide an important theoretical support for the wide application of hydrogen NBs in empowering the antioxidant defense system.

Nano-bubble hydrogen water: An effective therapeutic agent against inflammation related disease caused by viral infection in zebrafish model

Since the anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen has been widely known, it was supposed that hydrogen could suppress tissue damage by inhibiting virus-related inflammatory reactions. However, hydrogen is slightly soluble in water, which leads to poor effect of oral hydrogen-rich water therapy. In this study, the nano-bubble hydrogen water (nano-HW) (about 0.7 ​ppm) was prepared and its therapeutic effect against viral infection was investigated by utilizing spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)-infected zebrafish as model. Three-month-old zebrafish were divided into nano-HW treatment-treated group and aquaculture water treated group (control group). The results revealed that the cumulative mortality rate of SVCV-infected zebrafish was reduced by 40% after treatment with nano-bubble hydrogen water, and qRT-PCR results showed that SVCV replication was significantly inhibited. Histopathological examination staining showed that SVCV infection caused tissue damage was greatly alleviated after treatment with nano-bubble hydrogen water. Futhermore, SVCV infection caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was significantly reduced upon nano-HW treatment. The level of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was remarkably reduced in the nano-HW-treated group in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrated for the first time that nano-HW could inhibit the inflammatory response caused by viral infection in zebrafish, which suggests that nano-HW can be applied to antiviral research,and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for virus-caused inflammation related disease.

Abstract 556: Protective Effect of a Hydrogen-Rich Preservation Solution During Cold Ischemia in Rat Lung Transplantation

No abstract available

Hydrogen-Rich Water Alleviates the Nickel-Induced Toxic Responses (Inflammatory Responses, Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage) and Ameliorates Cocoon Production in Earthworm

In recent years, studies investigating the protective effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) against different diseases and the toxicity of some substances have attracted increasing attention. Here, we assessed the effects of hydrogen-rich water on different nickel-induced toxic responses (reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) of stress responses, histopathological changes) and cocoon production in earthworm model. Earthworms were randomly divided into two main groups: water (W) group including control (CW: ultrapure water), 10 (10W), 200 (200W), and 500 (500W), and hydrogen-rich ultrapure water (HRW) group including control (CHRW: hydrogen-rich ultrapure water), 10 (10HRW), 200 (200HRW), and 500 (500HRW) mg of nickel chloride kg-1 soil for 14 days. We found that cocoon production was less affected by the nickel exposure of earthworms in the 500HRW group compared to the 500W group. The ROS levels in 200HRW and 500HRW groups were less than that of 200W and 500W, respectively. The epithelial degeneration, epithelial necrosis, and necrosis in muscle fibers in tissues of earthworm were less damaged in 200HRW and 500HRW groups compared to 200W and 500W, respectively. HRW groups significantly reduced the expression of 8-OHdG induced by nickel exposure and inflammatory cytokine response including TNF-α. The study showed that hydrogen-rich water could alleviate the toxic effects of nickel-induced oxidative and inflammatory damages in earthworms. The HRW treatment known for its cheap and eco-friendly propertıes without any negative effects on the ecosystem can be used as a green method for alleviating the toxification effects of heavy metals in contaminated soil and increasing cocoon production of earthworms.