Hydrogen-rich bath with nano-sized bubbles improves antioxidant capacity based on oxygen radical absorbing and inflammation levels in human serum

This study compared the effects of hydrogen-water (HW) bath on the oxygen radical absorption-based antioxidant capacity and the inflammatory indicator, C-reactive protein (CRP), in serum between healthy volunteers and inflammatory/collagen disease-patients. The HW bath apparatus supplied nano-bubbles with a diameter of 110 ± 10 nm and 338-682 μg/L of dissolved hydrogen after 120 minutes electrolysis, and nano-bubbles increased to 9.91 × 107/mL along with the increase of correlative dissolved hydrogen. Ten-minute HW bath increased the oxygen radical absorption-based antioxidant capacity to 110.9 ± 9.2% at post-bathing 120 minutes, although unaltered with 10-minute normal water bath at 40°C in healthy subjects. The CRP level was repressed to 70.2 ± 12.1% at 120 minutes after HW bath, although rather increased for normal water bath. In the patients with connective tissue diseases, the CRP level was repressed to 3-24% upon 9 days to 4 months of HW bathing. In another six patients with diverse autoimmune-related diseases, upon daily HW bathing as long as 2-25 months, the pre-bathing CRP level of 5.31 mg/dL decreased to 0.24 mg/dL being within the standard-range, with relief of visible inflammatory symptoms for some cases. Thus, the HW bath with high-density nano-bubbles has beneficial effects on serum antioxidant capacity, inflammation, and the skin appearance. The study was approved by the Committee of Ethics, Japanese Center of Anti-Aging Medical Sciences (Authorization No. H-15-03-2, on January 15, 2019), which was a non-profitable organization officially authenticated by the Hiroshima Prefecture Government of Japan. (

Supersaturated Hydrogen-Rich Water Hydrotherapy for Recovery of Acute Injury to the Proximal Phalanges on the 5th Toe: A Case Report

Background: Traditional treatments of soft tissue injuries (STIs) and some musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) involves therapies such as the RICE protocol, which consists of rest, ice, compression and elevation for several days following acute trauma. Designed to improve comfort and reduce pain following traumatic injury, questions exist on the efficacy of RICE protocol; if it may in fact delay the rate of healing; and if it has any beneficial effect at all. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested molecular hydrogen therapy (H2) as a potential adjuvant, or first line treatment, for numerous MSK-Is, STIs, and afflictions affecting the skin, both through topical administration and oral consumption. Case report: The recovery of a middle-aged male who suffered an injury to the proximal phalanges of the 5th toe of the right foot while kickboxing. The participant received four 25-minute hydrogen-rich hydrotherapy sessions in a super saturated solution with an average concentration approaching 8mg/L, on days 1,3,5,7 following injury. Recovery noted a rapid reduction in pain and swelling, a dramatic improvement in range of motion and ability to bear weight, and an ability to conduct limited activities after first treatment, including walking and modified exercise (i.e., boxing). Conclusion: This case is yet another indication that high concentration hydrogen-rich hydrotherapy may be a helpful first line treatment in terms of reduction of pain and improvement in function following injury, in addition to the evidence suggesting benefit in reducing chronic indications caused by acute or chronic stress.

Treatment of Infectious Skin Defects or Ulcers with Electrolyzed Strong Acid Aqueous Solution

A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

Electrolyzed-Reduced Water as Artificial Hot Spring Water

Water-electrolysis with ion-exchange membranes followed by passing through ac- tivated carbon filter conducted to produce electrolyzed-reduced water that has neutral and reductive characteristics. In addition, the electrolyzed-reduced water was also confirmed characteristic of antioxidative activity. Bathing in the electrolyzed-reduced water lowered the ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) of human skin, as same as that in hot spring waters with reductive characteristic. Therefore, the electrolyzed-reduced water was expected to have a function of depressing the oxidation or aging of human skin. We concluded that the electrolyzed-reduced water is applicable to artificial hot spring water. Furthermore, we also suggested that the system have changed the oxidative characteristic of hot spring waters by addition of disinfectant such as chlorine compounds into the reductive characteristic.

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Electrolyzed Oxidized Water in Treating Mild to Moderate Acne

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and the tolerability of the Charme™ system, a hand-held device that electrolyzes a water-based sodium chloride solution and delivers electrolyzed oxidized water (EOW) to the skin, in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. A total of 31 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled in this 8-week, open-label, split-face pilot study. Acne lesion counts and physician global assessments were taken at each visit, as well as patient satisfaction and global assessments and high-resolution digital photographs. Statistical analysis of the results for treatment versus baseline scores was performed using a Hotelling T test and repeated – measures analysis of variance. Values of .04 or less were considered statistically significant. A total of 25 patients (mean age, 24.7 years, ranging from 15 to 47.years) completed the study. The mean reduction in total acne lesion counts from baseline to the end of treatment was 40.9 for the EOW – treated side (right side) and 18 for the untreated side (Heft side) (P=.04). Investigators observed a significant mean reduction in inflammatory lesions, both papules and pustules (P<.01), as well as in the number of individual papules (75.7% vs 19.4%) and pustules (42% vs 7.38%) on the treated side versus the untreated side (P=.02). The mean reduction of the noninflammatory lesions, however, was not significant (P=.336). Physician global assessment indicated that 100% of the patients showed clinical improvement of 25% or more, while 50% of the patients onserved a moderate improvement of 50% or more at the end of the treatment period. Interestingly, 75% of the patients preferred the EOW delivery system to other conventional treatment modalities. Only 5 patients had transient, cutaneous adverse effects, such as pruritus, erythema, burning/stinging, and/or peeling, that ceased by week 2. Patient satisfaction with the EOS system was rated high, with 80% of patients in the study assessing the EOW device as good or excellent, while 16% rated the device as fair. Only 4% of the patients were dissatisfied with the device. The pilot study demonstrated that the EOW system is an effective and well-tolerated method of treatment for patients with acne. The device appeared to be effective primarily on inflammatory acne lesions. This is most likely attributed to the antimicrobial properties of the EOW that reduce the Propionibacterium acnes populations.

Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice

Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERW in UVB-induced skin injury.

Atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, modulates basal and UV-induced gene expressions in human skin in vivo

Recently, there has been much effort to find effective ingredients which can prevent or retard cutaneous skin aging after topical or systemic use. Here, we investigated the effects of the atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, on acute UV-induced responses and as well as skin aging. Interestingly, we observed that H(H2O)m application to human skin prevented UV-induced erythema and DNA damage. And H(H2O)m significantly prevented UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in human skin in vivo. We found that H(H2O)m prevented UV-induced ROS generation and inhibited UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2 and IL-6 expressions, and UV-induced JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation in HaCaT cells. Next, we investigated the effects of H(H2O)m on intrinsically aged or photoaged skin of elderly subjects. In intrinsically aged skin, H(H2O)m application significantly reduced constitutive expressions of MMP-1, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA. Additionally, H(H2O)m significantly increased procollagen mRNA and also decreased MMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in photoaged facial skin. These results demonstrated that local application of H(H2O)m may prevent UV-induced skin inflammation and can modulate intrinsic skin aging and photoaging processes. Therefore, we suggest that modifying the atmospheric gas environment within a room may be a new way to regulate skin functions or skin aging.

A novel method of preserving cardiac grafts using a hydrogen-rich water bath

Background: Exogenously administered hydrogen exerts cytoprotective effects through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in various disease settings, including organ transplantation. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel cold storage device equipped with a hydrogen-rich water bath. Methods: The study used an established rat heterotopic transplantation model. Syngeneic heart grafts from elderly donors (60- to 70-week-old Lewis rats) or allografts from adult donors (12-week-old Brown Norway rats) were exposed to prolonged cold preservation. The cardiac grafts were stored in plastic bags containing Celsior, which were immersed in the cold water bath equipped with an electrolyzer to saturate the water with hydrogen. The cardiac grafts then were heterotopically engrafted into Lewis rat recipients. Results: In both experimental settings, serum troponin I and creatine phosphokinase were markedly elevated 3 hours after reperfusion in the control grafts without hydrogen treatment. The grafts exhibited prominent inflammatory responses, including neutrophil infiltration and the upregulation of messenger RNAs for pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Myocardial injury and inflammatory events were significantly attenuated by organ storage in the hydrogen-rich water bath. The grafts stored using the hydrogen-rich water bath also exhibited less mitochondrial damage and a higher adenosine triphosphate content. Conclusions: Hydrogen delivery to cardiac grafts during cold preservation using a novel hydrogen-supplemented water bath efficiently ameliorated myocardial injury due to cold ischemia and reperfusion. This new device to saturate organs with hydrogen during cold storage merits further investigation for possible therapeutic and preventative use during transplantation.

The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice

Exposure to UVB radiation induced skin damage that results to increase risk of skin cancer. Despite the clinical importance of skin-induced damage, antioxidants imposed limited therapeutic success. Hydrogen molecule (H2) has been known as a safe antioxidant in the prevention and therapeutic approach towards several diseases. Drinking hydrogen reduced water (HRW), inhalation of hydrogen gas, and injecting H2-dissolved saline are widely accepted to incorporate H2 in the body. However, there is no document about the beneficial effect of hydrogen water bath. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen bathing on the UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. For this, mice of the bathing group are allowed to freely swim on HRW, and let the HRW penetrate for 60 mins. Scoring of skin injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) enzyme activity quantification, cytokine analysis, and ultrastructural change of corneocytes were measured after exposure to UVB radiation of 360–540 mJ/cm2. In summary, the bathing with HRW significantly reduced the levels of skin damage, as well as increased activity of glutathione peroxidase. Further, the effect of HRW on cytokine network in the skin after UVB exposure revealed that HRW significantly decreased the level of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, scanning electron microscopy data revealed low number of defected corneocytes and ultrastructural changes, suggesting that HRW bathing would protect UV-induced cell damage.

Effects of hydrogen bathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and delayed-onset muscle soreness

Several studies have reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic medical gas owing to scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, little is known about effects of H2 on exercise-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weekly hydrogen bathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Nine healthy and active young men participated in this study, and each subject performed hydrogen bathing trial and placebo bathing trial in a crossover design. The subjects performed downhill running (8 % decline) at 75 % peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30 min, and each subjects conducted hydrogen or placebo bathing for 20 min, respectively, 1-6 days after downhill running. Before and after exercise, we measured visual analogue scale (VAS) and collected blood samples (Pre- and 5 min, 60 min after the end of bathing, 1day, 2days, 3days, 7days after downhill running). Blood sample analyses include creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17a (IL-17a) and lactate concentrations. Weekly hydrogen bathing had no effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage. On the other hand, hydrogen bathing significantly reduced DOMS (VAS) 1 and 2days after downhill running (p=0.033). These findings suggest that hydrogen bath after downhill exercise can be effective for reduction of DOMS.