Hydrogen Attenuates Inflammation by Inducing Early M2 Macrophage Polarization in Skin Wound Healing

Fei Xie, Mengyu Liu, Pengxiang Zhao, Shidong Lu, Xuemei Ma, Xujuan Zhang, Zisong Cai, Ziyi Liu

Read more:

DOI: 10.3390/ph16060885 DOI is the universal ID for this study.

This link will take you to the full study.


The heterogeneous and highly plastic cell populations of macrophages are important mediators of cellular responses during all stages of wound healing, especially in the inflammatory stage. Molecular hydrogen (H2), which has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, has been shown to promote M2 polarization in injury and disease. However, more in vivo time series studies of the role of M1-to-M2 polarization in wound healing are needed. In the current study, we performed time series experiments on a dorsal full-thickness skin defect mouse model in the inflammatory stage to examine the effects of H2 inhalation. Our results revealed that H2 could promote very early M1-to-M2 polarization (on days 2-3 post wounding, 2-3 days earlier than in conventional wound healing), without disturbing the functions of the M1 phenotype. Time series analysis of the transcriptome, blood cell counts, and multiple cytokines further indicated that peripheral blood monocytes were a source of H2-induced M2 macrophages and that the functions of H2 in macrophage polarization were not only dependent on its antioxidant effects. Therefore, we believe that H2 could reduce inflammation in wound care by shifting early macrophage polarization in clinical settings.

Publish Year 2023
Country China
Rank Positive
Journal Pharmaceuticals
Primary Topic Skin
Secondary TopicSurgery/Transplantation
Model Mouse
Tertiary TopicWound Healing
Vehicle Gas
pH N/A
Application Inhalation