The Effects of Alkaline Ionized Water Administration to the Total Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Accompanied by Dyslipidemia

A. Ramadhan, S.A. Wicaksono, S.B. Utami, T.E. Nugroho

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DOI: 10.53350/pjmhs211551449 DOI is the universal ID for this study.

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Background: Total cholesterol is a measure of the total amount of cholesterol components including LDL (low-density lipoprotein), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein). Alkaline ionized water (AIW) is an electrolyzed water with a hydrogen-rich molecule and an alkaline pH. It has a negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, which shows an antioxidant and has beneficial effects on reducing total cholesterol level, but the results still vary. This study was to investigate the effect of AIW to total cholesterol and other lipid profiles level in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accompanied by dyslipidemia.

Methods: This was a randomized double blind controlled trial performed in December 2017-December 2018. Thirty patients that had been diagnosed with T2DM accompanied by dyslipidemia in Diponegoro National Hospital Semarang and met the inclussion criteria were determined by consecutive sampling. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: AIW group (n=15) and control group (mineral water, MW) (pH 7) (n=15). Both were administered orally 1 liter per day for 12 days; total cholesterol level and other lipid profiles were measured before and after 12 days treatment. The statistical analysis was using independent t-test, paired t-test, and non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Result: There were no differences between AIW group and mineral water group in all lipid profiles at before and after treatment, including total cholesterol (pre-treatment: 290.2 ± 41.45 mg/dL vs 282.2 ± 15.81 mg/dL, p=0.575, and post-treatment: 249.8 ± 41.17 vs 268.5 ± 16.73 mg/dL, p=0.097), LDLc (pre-treatment: 167.0 ± 9.17 mg/dL vs 162.2 ± 4.75 mg/dL, p=0.227, and post-treatment: 157.2 ± 8.88 mg/dL vs 157.6 ± 5.39 mg/dL, p=0.518), HDLc (pre-treatment: 43.8 ± 4.16 mg/dL vs 42.8 ± 4.45 mg/dL, p=0.136 and post-treatment: 47.1 ± 3.24 mg/dL vs 45.2 ± 1.98 mg/dL, p=0.142), and triglyceride (pre-treatment: 351.0 ± 119.36 mg/dL vs 381.3 ± 59.38 mg/dL, p=0.934 and post-treatment: 266.4 ± 115.63 mg/dL vs 317.6 ± 70.50 mg/dL, p=0.154), respectively. There was a wider differences between post-and pre-treatment of total cholesterol (Δtotal cholesterol) (40.4 ± 31.57 vs 13.7 ± 10.65, p=0.002), LDLc (ΔLDLc) (9.8 ± 4.29 vs 4.6 ± 1.54, p=0.000), and HDLc (ΔHDLc) (4.3 ± 1.87 vs 3.4 ± 3.11, p=0.031) in AIW group compared to mineral water group.

Conclusion: Alkaline ionized water (AIW) decreased total cholesterol and improved other lipid profiles level in patients with T2DM accompanied by dyslipidemia. These findings might have important implications for the management of T2DM accompanied by dyslipidemia.

Publish Year 2021
Country Indonesia
Rank Positive
Journal Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
Primary Topic Whole Body
Secondary TopicDiabetes (Type II)
Model Human
Tertiary TopicLipid Metabolism
Vehicle Water (Electrolysis)
pH Alkaline
Application Ingestion