Hydrogen alleviated cognitive impairment and blood‒brain barrier damage in sepsis-associated encephalopathy by regulating ABC efflux transporters in a PPARα-dependent manner

Beibei Dong, Wen Mi, Xiaoyin Meng, Yi Jiang, Yonghao Yu, Yuanyuan Bai, Yuechun Lu

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DOI: 10.1186/s12868-023-00795-3 DOI is the universal ID for this study.

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Hydrogen (H2) can protect against blood‒brain barrier (BBB) damage in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), but the mechanism is still unclear. We examined whether it is related to PPARα and its regulatory targets, ABC efflux transporters. After injection with DMSO/GW6471 (a PPARα inhibitor), the mice subjected to sham/caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery were treated with H2 for 60 min postoperation. Additionally, bEnd.3 cells were grown in DMSO/GW6471-containing or saline medium with LPS. In addition to the survival rates, cognitive function was assessed using the Y-maze and fear conditioning tests. Brain tissues were stained with TUNEL and Nissl staining. Additionally, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, HMGB1, and IL-1β) were evaluated with ELISA, and PPARα, ZO-1, occludin, VE-cadherin, P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 were detected using Western blotting. BBB destruction was assessed by brain water content and Evans blue (EB) extravasation. Finally, we found that H2 improved survival rates and brain dysfunction and decreased inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, H2 decreased water content in the brain and EB extravasation and increased ZO-1, occludin, VE-cadherin and ABC efflux transporters regulated by PPARα. Thus, we concluded that H2 decreases BBB permeability to protect against brain dysfunction in sepsis; this effect is mediated by PPARα and its regulation of ABC efflux transporters.

Publish Year 2023
Country China
Rank Positive
Journal BMC Neuroscience
Primary Topic Brain
Secondary TopicSepsis
Model Mouse
Tertiary TopicEncephalopathy
Vehicle Gas
pH N/A
Application Inhalation